Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs – August 2014 Edition

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Welcome to August 2014 edition of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

We have had a fairly good look at the world of nonconformance in the previous editions of the blog carnival. [Blog Carnival Edition of March 2014) /: Blog Carnival Edition of April 2014), Blog Carnival Edition of May 2014, Blog Carnival Edition of June 2014) and Blog Carnival Edition of July 2014].

The next logical step is to address the nonconformance. Correction, Corrective Action and Preventive Action are the most usually traversed paths for this purpose.

We dedicate the present edition of our Blog Carnival to Correction, Corrective Action and Preventive Action.

Correction versus Corrective Action

Correction is taken to rectify a known non-conformance; Corrective Action is taken to prevent recurrence of said non-conformance.

Related Articles and Dictionary Terms:

Corrective vs. Preventive Action by Russ Westcott

[ISO 9001] section 8.5.2 says corrective action eliminates the cause of nonconformities to prevent recurrence, and section 8.5.3 says preventive action determines and eliminates the causes of potential nonconformities … to prevent occurrence.

One way to dispel these is by separating situations into … a patch (a single occurrence of a nonconformity that involves little risk and needs not be recorded), a corrective action (a more serious nonconformity involving some risk that requires action to prevent recurrence and must be recorded), a preventive action (a process that can be improved to prevent occurrence of a nonconformity and is to be documented) or a developmental action (a planned change to introduce a new process or product in response to strategic objectives, documented as a preventive action).

Corrective and preventive action (CAPA, also called corrective action / preventive action, or simply corrective action) are improvements to an organization’s processes taken to eliminate causes of non-conformities or other undesirable situations. CAPA is a concept within good manufacturing practice (GMP), and numerous ISO business standards. It focuses on the systematic investigation of the root causes of identified problems or identified risks in an attempt to prevent their recurrence (for corrective action) or to prevent occurrence (for preventive action).

Corrective actions are implemented in response to customer complaints, unacceptable levels of product non-conformance, issues identified during an internal audit, or adverse or unstable trends in product and process monitoring such as would be identified by SPC. Preventive actions are implemented in response to the identification of potential sources of non-conformity.

To ensure that corrective and preventive actions are effective, the systematic investigation of the root causes of failure is pivotal.

What is a Corrective Action Plan? – Definition, Procedures & Examples – A corrective action plan is a document describing exactly how a specific situation will be changed to better meet the goals of the company.

Monitoring corrective action – The table [in the article] illustrates the various steps that are taken by Electrolux when cases of non-compliance are found in our supply chain. Findings are graded in order of severity and range from Acceptable Findings to Zero Tolerance issues.

Corrective Action Challenge - How to construct a robust problem-solving process – R. Dan Reid

Recent data for ISO Technical Specification (TS) 16949 global certification audits show that clause 8.5.2, corrective action, is the one most frequently cited for major nonconformities, and it’s eighth on the list for minor ones.

In addition to the ISO 9001 requirements, ISO/TS 16949 requirements for this clause include sub-elements for:

  • Problem solving.
  • Error proofing.
  • Corrective action impact.
  • Rejected product test and analysis.

Clause 8.5.2.1 of ISO/TS 16949 requires that organizations "have a defined process for problem solving, leading to root cause identification and elimination."

Writing an Effective Corrective Action Plan

Step 1: Clearly state the problem or weakness, including the root cause.

Step 2: List the individuals who will be accountable for the results of the corrective action

Step 3: Create simple, measurable solutions that address the root cause

Step 4: Each solution should have a person that is accountable for it.

Step 5: Set achievable deadlines

Step 6: Monitor the progress of your plan.

One post of an edition of blog carnival cannot ever do full justice to a wide gamut of methods and issues related to Correction, Corrective Action and Preventive Action. So, we will take note of a few, additional, representative articles here:

We turn to our regular sections now:

ASQ Influential Voices bloggers are sharing their thoughts on the benefits of blogging and social media use–and where to start if you’re interested in doing the same, in Learning About Social Media With ASQ Bloggers. And for a deeper dive into the hows and whys of blogging, please read the article “Blog Boom” in July Quality Progress. It’s an in-depth conversation with ASQ Influential Voices bloggers Dan Zrymiak, Jennifer Stepniowski, Mark Graban, Jimena Calfa, and John Hunter.

In Establishing a Culture of Excellence: A Conversation With Arun Hariharan, is about key lessons in establishing a culture of continuous permanent improvement.

Blogger Round Up for July 2014, What’s the Purpose of Vision? is the ASQ’s Influential Voices bloggers’ response to a prompt about the clarity of focus at Volvo and Ikea and their thoughts on how to achieve and articulate an organizational purpose.

And then move over to ASQ TV Episode : Quality in Athletics examines the connection between quality, athletics and fitness

Related Video:

ISO 9001 Helps Soccer Team Improve All-Around – Monarcas Morelia, a team in the Mexican Football Federation, was finishing in the bottom of its league and losing money. In this video, learn how it turned things around by implementing a quality management system and becoming ISO 9001 certified. Read the full story

Our ASQ’s Influential Voice for the month is – Dr. Michael Noble

Dr. Michael Noble writes the Making Medical Lab Quality Relevant blog. He is a medical microbiologist within the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine in the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Dr. Noble is a self-declared "medical qualitologist" actively involved in national and international standards development, and is a provider of quality-oriented education and laboratory quality assessment.

Making Medical Lab Quality Relevant is a “discussion site for folks interested in improving the quality of medical laboratories. Most will be the thoughts and vents of a long time player in the medical laboratory quality from many perspectives, complex and basic laboratories, developed and developing countries, research and new knowledge.” The site has

§ About Michael Noble

§ Clinical Microbiology Proficiency Testing program

§ Program Office for Laboratory Quality Management

§ Sites for Visiting

                                                                     pages.

We do not have a fresh insight this month in so far as Curious Cat Management Improvement Carnival category is concerned.

However , in such an event, we do pick up an interesting article posted recently. We pick up Children are Amazingly Creative At Solving Problems for our present edition.

“Preschoolers are curious about almost everything. Postschoolers are curious about almost nothing.” – Russell Ackoff

Related: Taking Risks Based on EvidenceNaturally Curious ChildrenLearn by Seeking Knowledge, Don’t Only Learn from MistakesEncouraging Curiosity in KidsExtrinsic Incentives Kill Creativity

I look forward to your active participation in enriching the blog carnival as we pursue our journey …………….

Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs – July 2014

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Welcome to July 2014 edition of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

We have taken up detailed look at the fundamentals of Nonconformity (Ref: Blog Carnival Edition of March 2014) / Nonconformance (Ref: Blog Carnival Edition of April 2014) and then converse of these to terms, Conformity (Ref: Blog Carnival Edition of May 2014)and Conformance (ref: Blog Carnival Edition of June 2014).

We now take a look at these words for a more specific point of view of Quality Management. First, a few definitions.

Encyclopedia of Management: Non-conformity

Non-conformity is a failure to meet the requirements (3.1.2, ISO 9000:2005). Occurrence of non-conformity is not decrease of quality. It may be related to failure to meet the requirements of the standards, documentation, quality, regulations, requirements, contract requirements or customer and other interested parties requirements. A non-conformity can be treated only by what was actually found, or supported by objective evidence.

Business Directory.com defines nonconformity – Occurrence of a condition that does not conform to the specifications of the prescribed standards, drawing a fine distinction with Defect.

1. General: Frailty or shortcoming that prevents an item from being complete, desirable, effective, safe, or of merit, or makes it to malfunction or fail in its purpose.

2. Law: Lack of legal sufficiency due to incorrect or incomplete following of a required or statutory procedure. See also perfect.

3. Manufacturing: Non-conformance of a product with the specified requirements, or non-fulfilment of user expectations (including the safety aspects).

Wikipedia: In quality management,

A nonconformity (also known as a defect) [P.S. the statement in the bracket is technically not correct.] is a deviation from a specification, a standard, or an expectation.

In software engineering, ISO/IEC 9126 distinguishes between a “defect” and a ”nonconformity”. A defect being the non-fulfilment of intended usage requirements, whereas nonconformity is the non-fulfilment of a requirement. A similar distinction is made between validation and verification.

Business Directory also elaborates on Defects as –

Defects are generally classified into four classes:

Class-1: very serious, directly causes severe injury or catastrophic loss;

Class-2: serious, directly causes significant injury or economic loss;

Class-3: major, related to significant problems with respect to intended normal or reasonable use; and

(4) Class-4: minor, related to minor problems with intended normal or reasonable use.

Two other types of defects are latent defect and patent defect.

A non-conformance is a departure from an agreed arrangement between an approval authority (or orthodox position) and an individual or group performing work. In the context of quality management an “arrangement” is commonly an agreement to conform to:

  • A work product standard
    Example: The format and content of a Software Requirements Specification does not comply with the designated SRS Document Standard
  • A predefined procedure
    Example: The requirements elicitation activities on project X did not follow the steps required by the Joint Application Design Procedure.
  • A work product specification
    Example: The System Architecture Specification does not address all the customer requirements provided in the System Requirements Specification.
  • A documented plan
    Example: The activities described in the Project Plan are not being carried out.
  • An international standard for best practice
    Example: Company XYZ does not have a documented procedure for control of quality management system documentation as required by ISO 9001 – Quality Management Systems Requirements1 clause 4.2.3 Control of documents.

The Significance of a Non-conformance

The existence of a non-conformance means that some aspects of an organisation’s standard operating procedures are not being followed.

How are Non-conformances Identified?

Non-conformance are typically identified in the context of a quality management system audit. The auditor documents the non-conformance in a Non-conformance Report which is subsequently issued to a management representative who directs corrective action.

Non-conformance Lifecycle covers the following topics:

The scope of a blog carnival does not permit us to delve deeper into this subject, however we would devote a section to Non-conformance and Corrective Action related articles in our subsequent Blog Carnival editions once we have covered Corrective in the next edition of this Blog Carnival.

We turn to our regular sections now :

Blogger Round Up for June (2014) has picked up one most debated issue – What’s the Value of Organizational Excellence Programs? ASQ’s bloggers assessed the value of excellence awards—from going through the exercise as part of continuous improvement to following through after winning (or losing). Each of the response covered in this post has thrown up one or other of the aspect that needs careful consideration by the Quality professionals and Top Management for journey that begins once the question is asked.

And then move over to ASQ TV Episode - The Power of Data : Get an overview on data management, from hot topics such as big data to using data to improve quality.

· Read the case study by Kurt M. Hill

· Four data analysis basics that can help

· Seven data collection strategies

· Read the full article by Derek Purdy

The Pros and Cons of Big Data You’ve probably heard the popular term “big data.” It refers to large and complex data sets that go beyond traditional data processing tools. With big data come big challenges. For example, how and when should you collect or analyze big data? Statistics professor Geoff Vining urges caution in relying on big data.

What’s Working: Mining Data to Reduce Costs Change doesn’t come through data collection. The goal is to analyze your data for insights on how to do something better or smarter. Nationwide Insurance did just that in deciding which homes to inspect.

Our ASQ’s Influential Voice for the month is Tim McMahon

tim-mcmahonTim McMahon is a quality manager and lean practitioner with expertise in lean manufacturing with more than 10 years of Lean manufacturing experience.  He currently leads continuous improvement efforts for a high tech manufacturer in a Quality Management role. He blogs at A Lean Journey.

A Lean Journey is dedicated to sharing lessons and experiences along the Lean Journey in the Quest for True North. The blog also serves as the source for learning and reflection which are critical elements in Lean Thinking. The blog has a well laid out lists of varied subjects covered through the regular posts on the blog. It also has a very informative blog-roll of “Lean Blogs that I Like’ as well as “Other Sites I Like”. This makes the blog as veritable source of a good deal of reading and sharing of common interests and subjects. We will just list out the posts published in July 2014, till date:

We do not have a fresh insight this month in so far as Curious Cat Management Improvement Carnival category is concerned.

However visiting the blog always leads to interesting articles posted recently. We pick up Gerald Suarez on Creating the Future for our present edition.

The webcast herebelow is the speech Gerald Suarez gave at TedX Loyola Marymount.

http://youtu.be/w2tho2_wLBE

I look forward to your active participation in enriching the blog carnival as we pursue our journey …………….

Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs – June 2014

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Welcome to June 2014 edition of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

We have taken up detailed look at the fundamentals of Nonconformity (Ref: Blog Carnival Edition of March 2014) / Nonconformance (Ref: Blog Carnival Edition of April 2014) as well as Conformity (Ref: Blog Carnival Edition of May 2014). We now take a look at Conformance, before we take in these words for a more specific angle of Quality.

We take up a few dictionary meanings first:

  • Conformance – The Free Trade Dictionary: correspondence in form or appearance
  • Merriam Webster Dictionary defines Conformance as Conformity. The word is considered to have been used first in 1606. It also gives following examples:
    1. <behavior found to be not in conformance with all company policies regarding sexual harassment>
    2. <a woman with no interest in conformance to the dictates of fashion>

Synonyms

accord, accordance, agreement, conformity, congruence, congruency, congruity, consonance, harmony, tune

Antonyms

conflict, disagreement, incongruence, incongruity, incongruousness

Related Words

compatibility; assimilation, integration; oneness, solidarity, togetherness; affinity, empathy, sympathy

Near Antonyms

contrast, discrepancy, disparateness, disparity, dissimilarity, distinction, distinctiveness, distinctness, diverseness, diversity, unlikeness; deviance, divergence; discord, discordance, dissension (also dissention), dissent, dissidence, disunity, friction, strife; variability, variance; incompatibility

Compliance is an informal industry term generally accepted to mean the system provides support for some of a given standard. Vendors of compliant systems are generally expected to offer documentation describing which parts of the standard are supported, and which are not.

Conformance on the other hand is recognition of formal testing, that proves that an operating system (or product or service) provides 100% support for a given standard.

  • Cost Of Conformance is the total cost of ensuring that a product is of good *Quality*. It includes costs of *Quality Assurance* activities such as standards, training, and processes; and costs of *Quality Control* activities such as reviews, audits, inspections, and testing.

COC represents an organization’s investment in the quality of its products.

Mr. Bill Troy has taken over as CEO of ASQ from Paul Borwaski, who hung up the shoes on May 27. We can have a deeper peep at Bill Troy’s background here.

We have fresh activity @ Blogger Round UpThe Quality / Education Connection proved to be a hot topic at ASQ’s 2014 World Conference on Quality and Improvement.

And then move over to ASQ TV Episode - Teamwork : Learn what makes a team work successfully to accomplish goals and deliver results.

Here are related videos –

  • Story 2 : Coca Cola Team – Coca-Cola Co. Cold Drink Operations in Spain and Portugal used the International Team Excellence Award framework to enhance customer satisfaction and beverage safety.
  • Story 4: Extreme Team Events – Some organizations use extreme events and adventure challenges intended to motivate, inspire and boost creativity on teams.

Our ASQ’s Influential Voice for the month is –Robert Mitchell

Robert Mitchell has 30 years of quality experience in manufacturing, non-profit and civic organizations, and manages corporate quality and Lean Six Sigma operations at 3M. He is incoming chair of ASQ’s Minnesota section. He blogs at Quality Matters.

An interesting article on this blog is Sustaining Excellence, where Robert Michell dwells on his 3M experiences.

“3M leadership and management continue to rigorously apply the McKnight Principles:

“As our business grows, it becomes increasingly necessary to delegate responsibility and to encourage men and women to exercise their initiative. This requires considerable tolerance. Those men and women, to whom we delegate authority and responsibility, if they are good people, are going to want to do their jobs in their own way.

Mistakes will be made. But if a person is essentially right, the mistakes he or she makes are not as serious in the long run as the mistakes management will make if it undertakes to tell those in authority exactly how they must do their jobs.

Management that is destructively critical when mistakes are made kills initiative. And it’s essential that we have many people with initiative if we are to continue to grow.””

Tanmay Vora @ QAapire.com also had a take on this subject in the form of On Initiatives, Making Mistakes and McKnight Principles for Innovation

We do not have a fresh insight this month in so far asCurious Cat Management Improvement Carnival category is concerned.

But we have an interesting experience being shared in Practicing Mistake-Promoting Instead of Mistake-Proofing at Apple. Do read the article so as to feel the agony of a customer who was at the receiving end of a ‘poor’ (quality) of a process.

I look forward to your active participation in enriching the blog carnival as we pursue our journey …………….

Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs – May 2014

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Welcome to May 2014 edition of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

We have taken up detailed look at the fundamentals of Nonconformity (Ref: Blog Carnival Edition of March 2014) / Nonconformance (Ref : Blog Carnival Edition of April 2014) as well as Conformity / Conformance, before we take in these words for a more specific angle of Quality.

In the present edition we switch our attention to Conformity, beginning with definitions:

Conformity @ Merriam-Webster Dictionary

: behavior that is the same as the behavior of most other people in a society, group, etc.

: the fact or state of agreeing with or obeying something

Synonyms

accord, accordance, agreement, conformance, congruence, congruency, congruity, consonance, harmony, tune

Antonyms

conflict, disagreement, incongruence, incongruity, incongruousness

Related Words

compatibility; assimilation, integration; oneness, solidarity, togetherness; affinity, empathy, sympathy

Near Antonyms

contrast, discrepancy, disparateness, disparity, dissimilarity, distinction, distinctiveness, distinctness, diverseness, diversity, unlikeness; deviance, divergence; discord, discordance, dissension (also dissention), dissent, dissidence, disunity, friction, strife; variability, variance; incompatibility

Conformity @ Dictionary.com

1. action in accord with prevailing social standards, attitudes, practices, etc.

2. correspondence in form, nature, or character; agreement, congruity, or accordance.

3. compliance or acquiescence; obedience.

4. ( often initial capital letter ) compliance with the usages of an established church, especially the Church of England.

5. Geology . the relationship between adjacent conformable strata.

We now turn to more fundamental aspects of conformity.

Conformity @ Wikipedia looks at the subject from a more general point of view.

Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. Norms are implicit, unsaid rules, shared by a group of individuals, which guide their

Which line matches the first line, A, B, or C? In the Asch conformity experiments, people frequently followed the majority judgment, even when the majority was wrong.

Which line matches the first line, A, B, or C? In the Asch conformity experiments, people frequently followed the majority judgment, even when the majority was wrong.

interactions with others. This tendency to conform occurs in small groups and/or society as a whole, and may result from subtle unconscious influences, or direct and overt social pressure. Conformity can occur in the presence of others, or when an individual is alone.

Although peer pressure may manifest negatively, conformity can have good or bad effects depending on the situation. Driving on the correct side of the road could be seen as beneficial conformity. With the right environmental influence, conforming, in early childhood years, allows one to learn and thus, adopt the appropriate behaviours necessary to interact and develop correctly within one’s society. Conformity influences formation and maintenance of social norms, and helps societies function smoothly and predictably via the self-elimination of behaviors seen as contrary to unwritten rules. In this sense it can be perceived as a positive force that prevents acts that are perceptually disruptive or dangerous.

As conformity is a group phenomenon, factors such as group size, unanimity, cohesion, status, prior commitment, and public opinion help determine the level of conformity an individual displays.

In What Is Conformity? @ About.Com – Psychology Kendra Cherry refers to Deautsch and Gerard (1955), who have identified two key reasons why people conform: informational influence – happens when people change their behavior in order to be correct- and normative influence – from a desire to avoid punishments (such as going along with the rules in class even though you don’t agree with them) and gain rewards (such as behaving in a certain way in order to get people to like you).

Types of Conformity :
  • Normative conformity involves changing one’s behavior in order to fit in with the group.
  • Informational conformity happens when a person lacks knowledge and looks to the group for information and direction.
  • Identification occurs when people conform to what is expected of them based upon their social roles. Zimbardo’s famous Stanford Prison Experiment is a good example of people altering their behavior in order to fit into their expected roles.
  • Compliance involves changing one’s behavior while still internally disagreeing with the group.
  • Internalization occurs when we change our behavior because we want to be like another person.

In ‘ Deadly conformity is killing our creativity. Let’s mess about more’ Henry Porter @ the guardian | The Observer,

People’s lives would be more fulfilling if they were given greater freedom in the workplace……. apart from encouraging the well-appreciated conditions for creativity in the workplace, we perhaps need to understand that the structures for taking decisions and driving things forward are not the same ones we should use to find innovation and make the most of the unexploited 85% of our intelligence. Power and hierarchies are the enemy of creativity.

We now narrow down our area of study to some of the specific examples of conformity at work:

Conformity Analysis – As part of the transportation planning and programming process, The Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) staff evaluates the impact of proposed transportation activities on the region’s air quality.

Conformity of Production – Conformity of Production (COP) is a means of evidencing the ability to produce a series of products that exactly match the specification, performance and marking requirements outlined in the type approval documentation.

Please follow these links to documents that explain COP in more detail:

Conformity assessment is the process used to show that a product, service or system meets specified requirements…….The main forms of conformity assessment are certification, inspection and testing. Although testing is the most widely used, certification is the best known.

ISO has many standards relating to performing conformity assessment as well as many other publication and resources which can be accessed at resources for conformity assessment.

Next, we turn our sails to our regular sections, starting with an international body actively engaged in furtherance of quality- Abu Dhabi Quality and Conformity Council.

QCC is an Abu Dhabi government entity consisting  of a council of regulators with a mandate to ensure provision of quality infrastructure in line  with global standards, and to support regulators and government organizations through offering quality and conformity facilities, expertise and resources, promote a culture of quality towards consume.

And then move over to ASQ TV Episode- Lean with a Touch of Six Sigma – “You hear about lean and six sigma, and lean six sigma. Is there a difference? Learn how lean and six sigma work together and how NOT to mistake the tools.”

We would also leverage this opportunity to visit related videos:

Uncover the differences between Lean, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma – “Lean Six Sigma subject matter experts and instructors Chad Smith and Chris Hayes describe the core differences between Lean and Six Sigma.”

Waste Analysis – “The simplest thing an organization can do in applying lean is to identify waste in its processes and then work to eliminate them. To get started, conduct a waste analysis. It typically looks for waste in eight categories.” [Do visit identifying waste too.]

Is Lean (and Six Sigma) the way to go – “Lean expert, David Behling, and Six Sigma expert, Maria Pamment, discuss the relevance of lean and Six Sigma, the challenges of implementing lean and how to get executive support.” [Do visit David Behling's lean insights too.]

The Lighter Side–Lucy Hates Waste – In this classic comedy clip, we see an example of overproduction (one of the eight wastes of lean). Too bad eating extra product isn’t always a delicious option.

Lean Improves Response Time and Increases Revenue for Global Lender – One global lender was losing 40% of its applications for auto loans in Latin America. The organization used Six Sigma and lean tools to improve response time AND increase revenue in the process. [Do visit Case study too.]

Our ASQ’s Influential Voice for the month is – Dr. Lotto Lai

Dr. Lotto LaiBased in Hong Kong, China, Dr. Lotto Lai specializes in scientific research, quality assurance, and management. Dr. Lotto Lai has over 15 year hands-on experience in scientific research, quality assurance and management in Commercial Laboratory, University Testing Centre, Certification Body and Consultants Firm. He is Chairman & Fellow in HKSQ, MHKIE, SrMASQ, CMQOE and IRCA QMS Lead Auditor. He blogs at Quality Alchemist. The site already depicts publication of 52 posts in the year 2014, till date. The articles present a wide panorama of events that take place at HKSQ and other topics related to the subject of Quality.

We do not have a fresh insight this month in so far as Curious Cat Management Improvement Carnival category is concerned.

So we take a have look @ Interview on PDSA, Deming, Strategy and MoreBill Fox interviewed John Hunter and has posted the interview on his web site: Predicting Results in the Planning Stage.

I look forward to your active participation in enriching the blog carnival as we pursue our journey …………….

Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs – April 2014

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Welcome to April 2014 edition of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

We continue with our topic for in-depth view: Nonconformity / Non – conformance, focusing on Non – conformance in this issue.

Refusal | objection | dissent | protest | disobedience | disagreement

         and Antonyms

concurrence |acceptance |agreement |approval

for noncompliance .

A non-conformance is a departure from an agreed arrangement between an approval authority (or orthodox position) and an individual or group performing work.

In the context of quality management an “arrangement” is commonly an agreement to conform to: A Work Product Standard; A Predefined Procedure; A Work Product Specification; A Documentation Plan; An International Standard for Best Practice.

Nonconformity refers to a failure to comply with requirements, whereas Nonconformance refers to a deficiency in a characteristic, documentation, or procedure that renders the quality of an item or activity unacceptable or indeterminate; nonfulfillment of a specified requirement.

A non-compliance is the failure to adhere to an Act or its Regulations
A non-conformance is the failure to comply with a requirement, standard, or procedure.

A Google search throws up a host of additional informative article and links in so far as Non-conformance / Non-compliance is concerned. Among several such results, we take a look at selected few, from different fields.

Failure or refusal to comply. In medicine, the term noncompliance is commonly used in regard to a patient who does not take a prescribed medication or follow a prescribed course of treatment.

The process of determining noncompliance is an important aspect of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system, as well as the only established mechanism for determining noncompliance with the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) itself. Noncompliance with an NPT safeguards agreement constitutes violation of Article III of the NPT, the obligation to accept safeguards on all nuclear material, and, depending on the circumstances, possibly a violation of Article II, the obligation not to acquire nuclear weapons.

Noncompliance: Any action or activity associated with the conduct or oversight of research involving human subjects that fails to comply with the research plan as approved by a designated IRB or federal regulations or institutional policies governing such research. Non-compliance may range from minor to serious, be unintentional or willful, and may occur once or several times.

Noncompliance with regulations by enterprises is said to be rife in developing countries. Yet there is limited systematic evidence of the magnitude of noncompliance at the enterprise level. Making innovative use of two complementary data sources, this paper quantifies noncompliance for India’s Factories Act without the question of illegality ever being raised directly with enterprises. The paper finds that more than twice as many firms are not complying as are complying. Further, the number of non-compliant firms is much larger than the number of firms adjusting out of the regulation. Thus noncompliance with the Factories Act is a key feature of the “missing middle” in India. The paper explores the main trends and patterns of noncompliance and highlights a number of key issues for further analytical and policy research.

As we search for more results, we observe that more of the articles deal with the subject from Quality (Management or Function or Profession). Hence we will take a more detailed look at these articles in our future edition when will be having a look at the subject purely in terms of Quality (Management or Function or Profession).

Next, we turn our sails to our regular sections, starting with an international body actively engaged in furtherance of quality.

The Product Development and Management Association (PDMA) is the premier global advocate for product development and management professionals. Our mission is to improve the effectiveness of individuals and organizations in product development and management. This is accomplished by providing resources for professional development, information, collaboration and promotion of new product development and management.

The development of new products and services involves an integrated set of unique activities. PDMA is the only organization that focuses on addressing this challenge by providing the following opportunities for professional development: education, experience, networking and recognition.

Updates can be obtained from PDMA News blog for association news or the PDMA Blog which features content from PDMA members.

And then move over to ASQ TV Episode- Six Sigma

Six Sigma is a well-known quality method. But like most quality techniques, its use changes and evolves as organizations do. In this episode, we discuss benefits and challenges associated with implementing Six Sigma; how to distinguish the Six Sigma belt colors; the potential return on investment of implementing Six Sigma; the basics of DMAIC; and play a fun game of “Name That Black Belt.”

Lean and Six Sigma Conference Audio

Costs and Savings

DMAIC

Our ASQ’s Influential Voice for the month is -Shon Isenhour

Shon IsenhourBased in Charleston, South Carolina, Shon Isenhour specializes in business process management, strategic planning, organizational change management, and reliability engineering. He has led improvement initiatives for industries such as pharmaceuticals, metals, petrochemical, paper, and power generation, among others. He is direction of education and work execution management at GPAllied. Shon writes about reliability on Reliability Now, with a tagline – Developing and Sustaining Improved Corporate Bottom Line Performance.

We take a detailed look at one of the posts on this blog.

Education Without Application Is Just Entertainment: 3 things that can help create a return on education.

Retention:Take the time to map out the skills you need the person to have and the learning objectives associated with those skills. Then the training can be customized to only provide the points and topics they need to be successful.

Application: Once a student has seen a new way to do something in the training environment they must apply the skills nearly immediately. This helps with the previous topic of retention but it also creates success and real world examples that can be used to continue the change process.

Culture Manipulation: With a pull from leadership and the success of quick application you can begin to manipulate the culture into the target state.

We do not have a fresh insight this month in so far as Curious Cat Management Improvement Carnival category is concerned.So we take a brief stay at Good Process Improvement Practices and related articles – Change is not ImprovementHow to ImproveWhere to Start ImprovementOperational ExcellenceHow to Manage What You Can’t MeasureMaking Better DecisionsFind the Root Cause Instead of the Person to Blame

I look forward to your active participation in enriching the blog carnival as we pursue our journey …………….

Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs – March 2014

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Welcome to March 2014 edition of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

Our topic for in-depth view is: Nonconformity / Non – conformance.

The Quality profession would tend to take these two words in the same stride. However, a closer look is likely to throw up some subtle difference – if not so much in the   colloquial or practical meaning(s), certainly in terms of spirit of the content of the approach.

Hence, I have decided to take up Nonconformity, Non-conformance and their literal antonyms Conformity and Conformance for a separate detailed study each month, before we take up the discussions of these terms from the perspective of Quality Management – as a profession and as a function.

So, first, we take up Nonconformity in the present edition.

Apparently Nonconformity has far reaching different shades of meaning and intent in different fields, such as Gender Diversity, Religion, Psychology, Sociology, History and the similar other fields.  Therefore, we would confine our discussions to the articles which remain GENERAL in nature.

  • Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines Nonconformity as ‘failure or refusal to behave the way most people behave: failure or refusal to conform’.

If a fireman came to work in a police outfit or clown suit, that would be a clear case of nonconformity. Where there’s nonconformity, there’s difference.

Nonconformity means that someone is doing things differently from the norm.

Too much nonconformity can create chaos, but without a little nonconformity, life would be pretty boring.

  • Theasarus.com defines Nonconformity  as  ‘belief, behaviour different from most’.

Synonyms for Nonconformity

denial  | disaffection | disagreement | disapprobation | disapproval | discordance |  disobedience | dissent s| eccentricity s| exception | heresyta| | | heterodoxytar | iconoclasmta |insubordination| lawlessnessar| | negationta| | nonacceptance s| | noncompliance | | objection |opposition | originality | recalcitrance| | recusancy | rejectionar | strangeness |r| unconventionality | uniqueness | unorthodoxy | unruliness | vetor | violation | contumaciousness | |mutinousness | nonagreementar | nonconsent |

Antonyms for nonconformity

acceptance | agreement | allowance | approval |concurrence | endorsement | harmony |normality | obedience |observance | orthodoxy | peace | permission |ratification | sanction | usualness

In the battle against conventional beliefs, we focus on three Unconventional Strategies for Life, Work and Travel. I define non-conformity as “a lack of orthodoxy in thoughts or beliefs” or “the refusal to accept established customs, attitudes, or ideas.”

Under the category Non-conformity  on this blog, we have two articles that our draw our attention –

“The past always seems better when you look back on it than it did at the time. And the present never looks as good as it will in the future.” -Peter Benchley

  • In Limbo – Being between things is tough. There’s a bright future ahead! You can picture it, just out of reach in the near distance.

You could accept less than you dreamed of, in other words. But why would you do that?

Chances are, there’s only one real option: keep working away. Tick-tock. Check off the tasks one at a time.

Two steps forward, one step back.

There is a fine line that separates conformity from nonconformity, and both of them from intelligent decision making.  Although the distinction may seem clear, I believe the difference is far more complex than most people are aware of.  Why?  Because an accurate measure of conformity or nonconformity is based exclusively on an individual’s true understanding of a subject.

 

Traditional religions have generally prohibited tattoos on the grounds they encourage superficial thinking (what’s on the surface is not what matters).

The human mind is easily programmed, and human behavior is largely autonomous once the sub-conscious has a suggestion of what to do. By default, people seem inclined to conform to the ideas, environment and behaviors around them, at least as a means of survival and of fitting in. Unless an individual takes charge of their own mind and their own behavior, most people are content to follow along with what other people are doing, even if that means doing something self-destructive.

In no particular order, here are the top five ways to practice non-conformity in the world that we have created for ourselves – the matrix of self-destruction.

Monetary Non-conformity – The human race is enslaved to a corrupt and inflationary monetary system. To act as a balance to this, any opportunity to conduct life without using the dollar and the credit system is a stunning act of non-conformity.

Shun the Materialistic and the Entertainment Driven Lifestyle – To be realistic about one’s true needs and to consume less “stuff” makes one stand out as a non-conformist in today’s culture.

Health Rebel – Taking control of diet, finding some enjoyable type of exercise, and being courageous enough to try out alternative, non-pharmaceutical modalities of healing when possible, are, oddly enough, all one has to do in order to stand out as a health non-conformist.

Re-Education – The quality of the future can be seen in the quality of our youth, and the current models of building quality people seem to be falling short. Trying out new modalities of education for our children is an inspiring way to work towards a better vision for the future.

Experience-Based Spirituality – The non-conformist of today explores practices and ideas that work best to induce direct experience, following intuition to develop a connection to the sacred part of humanity, which is so routinely trampled in our hectic world. Finding inner peace through whichever religion or philosophy you choose is critical to creating a world free from toxic effects of collective fear.

These are certainly not the first words written on the subject, and are definitely the last! I am sure; there would be many more enlightening materials that would provide a far-more encompassing view of the subject. The more we know what we do-not-know of Nonconformity, we can turn the knowledge for creative use of nonconformity for sustained improvements.

Next, we turn our sails to our regular sections, starting with an international body actively engaged in furtherance of quality.

  • National Institute of Science and Technology of  US Department of Commerce is one of the USA’s oldest physical science laboratories. US Congress established the agency to remove a major handicap to U.S. industrial competitiveness at the time—a second-rate measurement infrastructure that lagged behind the capabilities of England, Germany, and other economic rivals. Today, NIST measurements support the smallest of technologies—nanoscale devices so tiny that tens of thousands can fit on the end of a single human hair—to the largest and most complex of human-made creations, from earthquake-resistant skyscrapers to wide-body jetliners to global communication networks. A-Z subject index — alphabetical listing of research topics, activities, programs, products, and services would help to explore NIST’s web site to learn about its current projects.

And then move over to ASQ TV Episode Culture of Quality:

Culture is the driving force of quality. Creating and sustaining a quality culture are much-discussed topics in the quality community. In this episode, we explore the ways that quality culture contributes to organizational performance. We’ll also learn what quality leaders can do to take organizational culture into their own hands. We’ll also recognize quality engineers and their superhero status.
The Related Video – Driving Culture of Quality –  adds further value.
A culture of quality can mean different things to different organizations. Determining what culture of quality means is the first step in the improvement journey.

Our ASQ’s Influential Voice for the month is – John Hunter

No doubt, we are familiar with the Management Improvement Carnival which has been the regular feature at The Carnival of john-hunterQuality Management Articles and Blogs.

John Hunter has a background in online quality information management. He has developed quality improvement methods and software at the quality management office of the Secretary of Defense and the White House Military Office. He blogs at Curious Cat Management Blog .

John Hunter writes primarily about management improvement on this blog – which makes sense given the title – through the range of topics like Deming, lean thinking, innovation, customer focus, continual improvement, six sigma… In the very early days he had more on investing, economic data, science, engineering and travel. Then he created three new blogs (Curious Cat Investment and Economics Blog, Curious Cat Science and Engineering Blog, Curious Cat Travel Photos blog)

In this month’s edition we will take a look at his post Poor Results Should be Addressed by Improving the System Not Blaming Individuals.

“I should estimate that in my experience most troubles and most possibilities for improvement add up to the proportions something like this: 94% belongs to the system (responsibility of management), 6% special.” – Page 315 of Out of the Crisis by W. Edwards Deming

I look forward to your active “non-conformant” participation in enriching the blog carnival as we pursue our journey …………….

Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs – February 2014

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Welcome to February 2014 edition of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

Our discussion topic for the present edition of the Blog Carnival is Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control. The subject does seem well-worn out. However, the internet search reveals several articles appearing in the recent time frame too.  As I read through the articles, I did find quite interesting bits of informative light in these articles. And, hence the topic for the current edition.

  • We commence our look-in of the topic with Overview @ ASQ, wherein we get to look at the classic definitions:

The terms “quality assurance” and “quality control” are often used interchangeably to refer to ways of ensuring the quality of a service or product. The terms, however, have different meanings.

Assurance: The act of giving confidence, the state of being certain or the act of making certain.
Quality Assurance: The planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled.

Control: An evaluation to indicate needed corrective responses; the act of guiding a process in which variability is attributable to a constant system of chance causes.
Quality Control: The observation techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality.

  • The sight dealing exclusively with different meanings –  www.diffen.com  –  has this to state:

Quality Assurance is process oriented and focuses on defect prevention; while quality control is product oriented and focuses on defect identification. It goes on to illustrate the difference with the help of a chart

Because “assurance” means that you know you did everything needed to make something that works right, while “control” means that you have no idea whether any or all of your batch o’junk is worth anything until you examine each item.

In the case of software, QA means that you know that the code you are making fulfills the requirements, QC is discovering that your process of writing code was not adequate to assure that you didn’t create a lot of bugs along with your features.ChrisBaugh

QM-QA-QCAs the quality movement matured and improved, it developed into Quality Management. Now the emphasis has widened to include developments in systems thinking and management systems.  Quality management is a much broader field.  While it includes quality planning, as well as quality control and quality assurance, it also includes quality improvement and extends beyond just QA and QC to a systems approach and looking at the quality management system as a whole.

  • Difference between QA and QC, while neatly laying out the differences in a tabular format, focuses on failure prevention as the key to Quality Assurance, as against failure detection of the Quality Control.

Quality Assurance: a Strategy of Prevention whereas Quality Control: a Strategy of Detection.

  • What is the difference between Quality Assurance and Quality Control?   differentiates these as :“Prevention over inspection” and “DIRFT – Do It Right the First Time”. At the heart of these two concepts lies the idea that everything we produce should be produced error free from the start, because it’s more costly to fix an error afterwards.
  • BBC’s article on Product analysis and evaluation states that – Designers and manufacturers use product analysis to help them develop ideas for new or improved products and to analyse the work of other designers. Quality assurance is a system of checks and inspections to ensure high standards throughout design and manufacture.

Quality Control is defined as a system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in an individual test or process.  Quality control activities span the testing process from the moment of specimen collection until the time the physician receives the report.  Quality Assurance (QA) is defined by the College of American Pathologists as systematic monitoring of quality control results and quality practice parameters to assure that all systems are functioning in a manner appropriate to excellence in health care delivery.  Quality assurance is a coordinated system designed to detect, control and prevent the occurrence of errors and, ultimately, to further a clinician’s ability to appropriately care for his or her patient. A number of quality control/quality assurance measures for cytopathology have been specified by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988.  All quality assurance processes must be described and documented in a quality assurance program in the laboratory.

Simply put, quality assurance is the act of creating, monitoring and maintaining the overall quality system (the marching orders).

Quality control is the act of carrying out those orders during the process of creating the product or deliverable.

The quality control manager will probably be interested in product yield, reacts to changing conditions, focuses on the product, provides a production line function, and finds faults. The aim of quality control is to offer the highest quality of product or service to the client, thereby meeting or even exceeding the client requirements.

QC focuses on the product produced. This focus is two-fold, ensuring that both customer and producer share the same vision of quality, and that work is objectively reviewed to eliminate defects. First goal is to reduce the “Quality Gap”, the gap between customer expectations (not necessarily stated) and the development team’s understanding of the explicit requirements. The second goal of the Quality Control entity is to find defects before they reach the customer.

QA focuses on processes and their continuous improvement. Its goal is to reduce variance in processes in order to predict the quality of an output (final or interim product), gather best practices for the company, reduce cost, and reduce time to market. QA is strongly linked to innovation and creativity. Quality Assurance neither imposes nor defines processes for other people, but it provides advice and support to the process owner, which leads to the ability to measure success and make decisions based on facts. A well-known approach to Quality Assurance is the PDCA (Plan Do Check Act) Cycle.

And here are few of the detailed reference articles:

Understanding consumer behavior can help quality assurance (QA) people allocate resources.

A comparison of commonly used quality assurance alternatives, classified according to generic methods of dealing with defects, leads to an integrated approach for software quality assurance and improvement.

Twenty multiple-choice questions test your knowledge of quality control statistics.

We take a look beyond our focus topic @ Random Thoughts posted by Michael Wade

  • In many cases, we should not worry so much about what to do beyond our current efforts; rather we should consider what to stop doing.
  • In a similar vein, searching for new facts can be less productive than reviewing our current knowledge and learning what doesn’t withstand scrutiny.
  • Frequently tally up your assumptions. Don’t look for magic bullets. The difficult path may be the fastest.
  • If you could travel to the next decade, which of our present practices would cause you to wonder, “How could they have ever thought that would work?” If you were a stock, would you be a Buy, Hold or Sell?
  • An executive’s passion for inaction can be as revealing as an x-ray.
  •  No one boasts of hard work more than a non-producer.

The Blog Carnival does strongly recommend to bookmark Magazine back issues @ Quality Digest.

Next, we turn our sails to our regular sections, starting with an international body actively engaged in furtherance of quality.

The International Register of Certificated Auditors (IRCA) – world’s original and largest international auditor certification body.

IRCA provides two main services:

  1. Certification of auditors of management systems
  2. Approval of training organizations and certification of their auditor training courses

The site has several useful services, like IRCA e-Library, which can be accessed by registering therein.

And then move over to ASQ TV Episode – Global Supply Chain

In today’s global economy, most organizations know they can’t go at it alone. To build products and services that customers demand, businesses must forge partnerships with each other. So how do you ensure you’re adding the right partners to your supply chain process? Include quality in the equation. This episode explores:

  1. Quality considerations when building a global supply chain.
  2. Keys to a synced-up supply chain.
  3. A tool that rates suppliers and helps them improve.

Our ASQ’s Influential Voice for the month is – : Babette N. Ten Haken.

Babette N. Ten HakenBabette is founder and president of sales at Aerobics for Engineers, LLC. She works to build revenue-producing business strategies for technical start-ups seeking investors and early customers. She is a professional mentor for the National Science Foundation Innovation Corps program, a Six Sigma Green Belt, and mentor at the Center for Entrepreneurship, University of Michigan. She has been recognized as one of the 2013 top 50 sales and marketing influencers. Her blog is called Sales Aerobics for Engineers.

The blog has these sections:

The blog has wide ranging articles on Sales, of which  – Creating Professional Sustainability – Creating your professional sustainability strategy encompasses considering all the activities you engage in pre- and post- “sale. “– yourself as a Professional Person of Worth – has direct message for Sales and Marketing professionals. Importantly, the underlying message also holds equally true for Quality Professionals.

And we finally round up our present edition with  John Hunter’s 6th Annual Curious Cat Management Blog Review  wherein each of the participants post reviews of several blogs on their blog. Links to all the 2013 Management Blog Review posts are listed below, ordered by the number of years each author has participated in the annual review.

I look forward to your active participation in enriching the blog carnival as we pursue our journey through the rest of 2014…………….

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