Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music – December, 2017

Welcome to December, 2017 edition of Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music.

December, 2017 in any case has several anniversary / birth dates of people connected with HFM.

This month, Shashi Kapoor bade farewell to this mundane world. That would have led to Muhammad Rafi’s birthday, in the presence of Shashi Kapoor in the heaven. The first time it happened in Yeh Dil Kisko Doon (music : Iqbal Qureshi, Lyrics: Qamar Jalalabadi) in 1963,  a black and white film by K Mishra, that had over half a dozen songs from Mohammad Rafi. Here are the duets:

I have recalled the solos at the end of the present post.

Here are some other tributes to Shashi Kapoor:

Some other December tributes:

Diip Kumar:

The Many Moods of Dilip Kumar – He was a fantastic actor, a man who was equally good at comedy and romance (if you don’t believe me, just watch Beimaan tore nainwa from Tarana) as he excelled at the intense, angst-ridden characters he so often played.


  • Always Aashiqana With Naushad Ali’s Music presents some of the gems on the maestro’s birth anniversary (25 December)
  • Aawaz De Kahaan Hai: The Golden Music of Naushad – Naushad’s destiny was written in music, by music to be dedicated to music. Peeyush Sharma, in ‘Silhouette’ pays tribute with a glimpse of his musical journey.
  • NAUSHAD-Once All of India was crazy about his Melodies. – This master composer first made both Mukesh (Andaz) and Talat Mahmood (Babul) sound surpassingly individualistic on Dilip Kumar He was, near clandestinely, getting Mohammed Rafi ready for the big leap. From his first Anmol Ghadi solo, Tera khilauna toota baalak (1946), to O door ke musafir on Dilip Kumar in Uran Khatola (1955), Rafi came a long, long way, once the Baiju Bawra (above) miracle happened in 1952..

Noor Jehan:

My Favourites by Shailendra (30 Aug 1927 – 14 Dec 1966), who worked with nearly all music directors ( exceptions being Naushad & O P Nayyar).

Remembering Meena Kapoor, who passed away on 23rd of November 2017. Meena’s last playback singing was for the movie ‘Chhoti Chhoti Baatein’ that was released in 1965 and was also Anil da’s last film as a music director.

Chalte Chalte Mere Yeh Geet Yaad Rakhna: Bappi Lahiri’s Melodious Hits – On 27th November this year Bappi da turns 65. Also, with his first film, Nanha Shikari, released in 1973, he has completed 45 years in this industry as a music director. Peeyush Sharma takes us on a trip down his memorable songs.

Google remembered Mirza Ghalib on 27th December.

Who is Mirza Ghalib, featured on today’s Google Doodle?

Mirza Ghalib’s 220th birth anniversary: Google Doodle pays tribute to legendary poet

Here are some more posts on this occasion:

Mohammad Rafi has a special place in December on this blog:

We have two parts episode of Fading Memories, Unforgettable Songs for December, 2017 in the memory of Mohammad Rafi. In the series of articles featuring Mohammad Rafi’s Solo Song from FIRST film with the Music Director, we have covered years 1952-1953, after having covered years 1950-1951 earlier this month and year 1949 earlier this year of the 2nd five-year-slot of 1949 to 1953.

And then, we have –

And, now the posts on other subjects:

My Favourite Lullaby Songs – one of the first popular lullby songs from a Hindi movie is ‘So Ja Rajkumari So Ja‘ sung by K L Saigal from Zindagi-1940 (Music by Pankaj Malik). The song is still considered to be an ultimate lori

Ravindra Kelkar has presented three more posts on O P Nayyar @ SoY:

Raj Kapoor: ‘I dream cinema, I breathe cinema and I live cinema’Ritu Nanda – An excerpt from a compilation of writings by and about the legendary actor and filmmaker.

Beauties bond over baubles in ‘Mann Kyun Behka’ from ‘Utsav’Nandini Ramnath – Rekha and Anuradha Patel are visions to behold in the Laxmikant-Pyarelal song from Girish Karnad’s movie.

Ten of my favourite ‘Unusual Singer’ songs, which means:

(a) That it’s the person who’s lip-syncing to the song (and not the playback singer) who’s unusual…

(b) and unusual because the actor in question is a well-known face, but doesn’t usually lip-sync to songs.

“Nazar Lagi Tore Bangle Par” and Zarina Begum, who was a protégé of Begum Akhtar.  Both famously sung a version of “Nazar Lagi Tore Bangle Par” that predated the one in Kala Pani.

In our series Micro View of Best Songs 1948 @SoY of Best songs of 1948: And the winners are? , we completed the third part of Lata Mangeshkar solo songs, and then summed the Female Solo Songs for 1948 with  My Top Female Solo Songs and then went on to take up Male- female Duets in the Duets section. We covered the male female duets of Mukesh as well as those of  Mohammad Rafi. SoY has concluded the series with Best songs of 1948: Wrap Up 3 and Best songs of 1948: Final Wrap Up 4.

We have placed the articles paying tributes to Mohammad Rafi in the space for the tributes here before in the present article. So we will take up two songs of Mohammad Rafi, form the first film he played back solo for Shashi Kapoor to begin the end of the article:

Ye Dil Kiso Dun – Ye Dil Kisko Dun (1963) – Iqbal Quereshi – Qamar Jalalabadi

Mera Dil Tum Pe Aa Gaya., Mere Pahlu Se Dil Gaya – Ye Dil Kisko Dun (1963) – Iqbal Quereshi – Qamar Jalalabadi

The Christmas Celebration in Hindi Films’ picks up the rare, ddelightful Christian characters, which always brought a smile on our lips.

On that note of festive smile, I wish you all a very HAPPY & PRPOSPEROUS 2018 that keeps providing rich music to your Life.

The Micro View of the Songs of 1948 @ SoY – The Duets – Male Female Duets – Mohammad Rafi +

Mohammad Rafi’s duets with other female singers appear reasonably respectable in numbers. However, in terms of depth of penetration, i.e. range of co-singers or music directors the duets do look at the very initial stage of its enveloping wave formation. In fact the range of music directors and the number of Rafi duets with Shamshad Begum can be said more to the reflection of her strong acceptance at that point of time. Few duets had attained a high popularity level, but these are too few and far in between.

+ Suraiya

Taaron Bhari Raat Par Tu Nahin Hai, Ye Zindagi Kya Hai Tu Kahin Ham Kahin – Kajal – Ghulam Mohammad – D N Madhok

+ Shamshad Begum

Solah Baras Ki Bhai Umariya – Aag – Ram Ganguly – Nakshab Jarachvi

Dheere Dheere Bol Koi Sun Na Le Bol – Actress – Shyam Sundar – Nakshab Jarachavi

Are O Albeli Naar Kyon Kar Kare Chhip Kar Vaar – Lal Dupatta – Gyan Dutt – Manohar Khanna

Nanhi Si Jaan Mein Hae Jawani Ka Sitam Kyon … – Nadiya Ke Paar – C Ramchandra – Moti B A

Ek Abre Siah Chhaya Aaj Mere Saathi – Rahnuma – Dhumi Khan – Dhumi Khan

+ Amirbai Karnataki

Mujhe Tum Se Muhabbat Hai Ye Meri Chak Damani – Shahnaz – Ameerbai Karnataki – Fiza Kausar Banglauri

Nazaron Se Khelun Baharon Se Khelun, Mera Bas Chale Chand Taaron Se Khelun – Shahnaz – Ameerbai Karnataki – Akhtar Pilibhiti

Tere Nazdik Jaate Hai, Na Tujhse Door Hai – Shahnaz – Ameerbai Karnataki – Akhtar Pilibhiti

Zindadi Ki Raah Mein Tez Chal Kahin Na Tham – Shahnaz – Ameerbai Karnataki –Amir Usmani Deobandi

Man Ki Sooni Nagariya Suhani Bani– Sona Chandi – Tufail Farookhi – Khavar Zanam

+ Geeta Roy

Phool Ko Le Baitha Bhool Kar – Chunariya – Hans Raj Behl – Mulk Raj Bhakari

 + Beenapani Mukherjee

Mera Dil Ghayal Kar Ke Bairi Jag Se Dar Ke – Satynarayan – Hansraj Behl – Surjeet Shethi

Kya Yaad Hai Tum Ko Wo Din – Satynarayan – Hansraj Behl

+ Other female Singers

Mohantara Talpade +Bairan Ho Gayee Raat Piya Bin – Adalat – Datta Davjekar – Mahipal

Rekha Rani +Jamana Ke Tat Par Ham Rokenge Baan – Amar Prem – Datta Thakar – Mohan Mishra M.A.

Rajkumari +O Aao Chale Manwa More Door Kahin – Amar Prem – Datta Thakar – Mohan Mishra M A

Lalita Deulkar +More Raja Ho Le Chal Nadiya Ke Paar – Nadiya Ke Paar – C Ramchandra – Moti B A

Next, we will take up, spread over three parts, Male Female Duets of Other Singers for Micro View of Songs of 1948.

Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs – December, 2017

Welcome to December, 2017 edition of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

With our last issue for 2017, we will have opportunity to celebrate completing 5 years of the Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs. Howsoever retrospect I may, I will confine that analysis for myself so as to help chart the course this blog carnival chart in 2018. That leads to me search for Trends To Look for in 2018 and set it up as the topic for our December, 2017 issue.

5 Quality Management Trends To Watch Out For In 2018:

Trend #1: Quality is omnipresent

Trend # 2: Manage quality as project

Trend # 3: Quality as a strategic tool

Trend # 4: Sustainability and Quality management

Trend # 5: Quality Management is SMAC – Social Media, Mobility, Analytics & Cloud-ked

The Leading Quality Management Trends For 2018 also reflects a similar thought process:

  • Quality management will become universal
  • Quality management will be implemented as a project
  • Quality will be used as a strategic tool
  • Social media integration in quality initiatives
  • Internet of Things implementation in quality initiatives
  • Quality management and sustainability will be integrated
  • Cloud-based quality management system

We now broad-base our look:

Top 5 Trends For Marketers And Entrepreneurs In 2018

  1. We are in an experience economy. Antiquated rules of engagement no longer apply.
  2. In the age of experience, EVERYONE is a customer.
  3. We are in an era of purposeful business driven by collaboration, inclusion, and the notion of leaving the world a better place. Empathy is the NEW BLACK.
  4. Stop worrying about Artificial Intelligence. Start focusing on Augmented Intelligence – where man’s abilities will be enhanced by machine learning and cognitive technology.
  5. Don’t just be smart. Be emotionally intelligent – As Simon Sinek told us all this year, it is much more important today to focus on the why and who as opposed to the what.

Top 10 Manufacturing Trends For 2018 – According to a recent IQMS survey, to 92% of manufacturers say product quality defines their success in the eyes of their customers.  56% of manufacturers find their customers most frequently demand short notice production capabilities as a value-added service. 50% define their success by their ability to meet on-time deliveries consistently… Expect manufacturing trends for 2018 to focus on meeting and exceeding those challenges with the best product quality possible to drive the most efficient path to higher growth:

  1. 2018 is going to be a pivotal year in manufacturing software usability.
  2. Demand for manufacturing engineering, business analysts capable of xinterpreting operational data, and data scientists who are familiar with manufacturing will skyrocket.
  3. Despite the many fears that robotics will take jobs, in 2018 robots will be given repetitive, manual tasks freeing up engineering and production teams’ time for more cognitive, valuable tasks.
  4. Nascent technologies including collaborative robots, 3D printing, virtual reality and voice-activation assistants will be piloted next year with broad adoption by 2021.
  5. Industry 4.0 and smart factories will win more converts in 2018 driven by the need to improve product quality and enable more efficient strategies for attaining compliance.
  6. OEE and traditional metrics of manufacturing performance will go through a transformation due to real-time monitoring and predictive analytics.
  7. Reducing global supply chain risk through by more effective quality management strategies, compliance programs, and supplier collaboration will become a strategic priority.
  8. The Internet of Things (IoT) hype of having a sensor on literally everything on a shop floor will give away to unique use cases where millions of dollars of savings are attained and higher accuracy levels achieved.
  9. Manufacturing Intelligence will emerge as the system of record, providing a wealth of data to drive more efficient production operations.
  10. The combination of new on-premise, hosted and cloud-based manufacturing applications will make integration a critical success factor for manufacturing in 2018.

The Top Business Trends To Look Out For in 2018

  • The arrival of Augmented Intelligence – Augmented intelligence is, for many industries, a fundamental part of work. Instead of replacing productive workers, technology at this stage is being used to amplify performance.
  • Artificial Intelligence moves to the mainstream – Artificial intelligence has been democratized…..AI is still in its infancy so job loss for most people is negligible. And it’s likely to stay that way for at least the next decade. That’s good news for most people because it means they won’t be replaced, at least until…
  • Automation achieves dramatic growth – Automation, driven by AI and advanced hardware, is set to disrupt work as we know it. We’re automating traditional jobs out of existence on a daily basis.
  • The end of quality, the rise of the experience economy – Quality is a given. It’s not something you’re rewarded or recognized for. It’s expected, but its an afterthought. People want companies to provide a consistently wonderful experience from beginning to end. The good news is, if the experience and values are there, customers are willing to spend more.
  • The brick and mortar apocalypse-trends are accelerating as businesses struggle to adapt to the new paradigm(s).
  • Values over the bottom line – Shared values have always been important to customers. The expectation and demand for these values continue to grow. Customers expect you to understand what matters most to them. Then, they expect you to use that data to capture their attention and improve their wellbeing.
  • The frightful 5 monopoly – We’re addicted to the frightful five – Google, Amazon, Apple, Facebook and Microsoft. They’ve created an ecosystem that’s filled with your friends, family and favorites. They’ve created a business model around two specific ingredients – constrained relationships and dedicated relationships. Constrained relationships use pain to keep us connected. Regret avoidance, loss aversion and a desire for control keep us locked in. Dedicated relationships rely on shared values, benevolence, integrity and competence. The intangible details motivate us to stay. These frightful 5 have embedded them deeper into these cues.
  • Blockchain everything – In essences, blockchain is a different way to process transactions or records. Like a shared document that can be recorded and remembered several different ways. Blockchain is emerging in healthcare as well as financial tech. And no matter the fate of Bitcoin as a currency, blockchain will be here to stay. This is an excellent primer about how blockchain works and its underlying technology.

We will now turn to our regular sections:

For the present episode we have picked up the two-part article, Crafting & Executing Strategy: Part 1 and Part 2 @ the column The Drucker Perspective @ Management Matters Network.

For Peter F. Drucker, strategic thinking was not a mechanistic set of rules but a process of thinking through the organization’s purpose and objectives.  According to Drucker, executives in organizations of all kinds and sizes must start by systematically asking themselves three questions:

  • How do we make our present organization more effective?
  • How do we identify and realize the organization’s potential for growth?
  • How do we make our existing organization into a different organization for a different future?

Said Drucker: “Each of these questions requires a distinct approach… Each asks different questions… Each comes out with different conclusions… Yet they [are] inseparable…

The remainder of this two part article focuses on the question “what should our business be?”

ASQ CEO, Bill Troy section does not have anything of interest at present.

We now watch one of the latest ASQ TV  episodes:

  • Quality Gurus :  In this episode of ASQTV, we’ll look back at six thought leaders who changed the quality landscape.

“Guru Guide”, QP, 2010

  • Auditing Process-Based Quality Management Systems (Part 1 of 2) and (Part 2of 2) – Learn the basics of internal quality auditing and process auditing directly from Jack West and Charles Cianfrani, co-authors of How to Audit the Process-Based QMS, Second Edition. Part 1 covers the following topics:
  • What is an audit?
  • How to prepare for an audit
  • How to plan an audit

Part 2 focuses on how to conduct an audit and prepare an audit report.

  • Root Cause Analysis for Beginners (Part 1 of 2) and (Part 2 0f 2) – Jim Rooney, an ASQ Fellow and quality veteran with more than 30 years’ experience in numerous industries, walks through the basics of root cause analysis in this two-part webcast series.

From Quality Magazine, we pick up three articles that are more in alignment with the main topic of the present episode:

  • 2017: A Year of Transitions in ISO-related StandardsAaron Troschinetz – The most important thing is not to simply meet the requirements but to identify how and why the requirements work to make organizations better.
  • A Paradigm Shift to a Culture of QualityChuck Cimalore – Manufacturing professionals in quality assurance and process improvement are not new to understanding the importance of quality. However, do they know the difference to be made in creating a culture of quality with regards to driving the policies, practices, and processes needed to accomplish an organization’s work? Developing a culture of quality begins with embodying core values: guiding philosophies, behaviors, and attitudes that, when combined, contribute to day-to-day operations.
  • The Next Generation of Manufacturing ProfessionalsEdward McMenamin – Recruitment, diversity and outreach are key to filling the manufacturing jobs of the future.

Jim L. Smith’s Jim’s Gems posting for November, 2017 is Today. – Looking forward to next month, or even next year, what actions will you wishes you had already taken? Now, today, is your chance to change each of them from a future wish into the present reality…Today, the future is yours to write so be the author of your destiny.

It is on that note that we end 2017 and look forward to a more meaningful 2018.

Note: The images depicted here above are through courtesy of respective websites who have the copyrights for the respective images.

The Micro View of the Songs of 1948 @ SoY – The Duets – Male Female Duets – Mukesh +

We now take up the third leg – The Duets – of ‘Best songs of 1948: And the winners are?’. As per our Micro View Practice, we will cover this leg of the Micro View journey in three stages – Male-Female Duets, Male- Male Duets and Female-Female Duets.

The Male Female Duets

The male female duets have been accorded almost equal respect as that accorded to male or female solo songs. Many of the male female duets have been accepted as the benchmark milestones as are some male or female solo songs have been accepted as the benchmark milestones in the Hindi Film Music.

Duets of Mukesh

Mukesh has a fairly substantive presence in the Male-Female Duet space for 1948. In terms of numbers, he has far more duets with Shamshad Begum. His memorable duets with Shamshad Begum also are many. However, he has at least one memorable duet with almost all other female singers, too.

+ Lata Mangeshkar

Ab Darane Ki Koi Bat Nahi Angrezi Chhora Chala Gaya – Majboor – Ghulam Haider – Nazim Panipati

Ab Yaad Na Kar Bhool Ja Aye Dil Wo Fasana – Anokha Pyar – Anil Biswas – Shums Azimabadi

+ Shamshad Begum

Raat Ko Ji Chamake Taare Dekho Balam Mohe Akhiyan Maare – Aag – Ram Ganguly – Majrooh Sultanpuri

Kaise Bataun Unse Dil Ko Pyar Kyun Hai – Anjuman – Bulo C Rani – Majrooh Sultanpuri

Bhool Gaye Kyon Ke Deke Sahara Lootanewale Chain Hamara – Anokhi Ada – Nuashad – Shakeel Badayuni

Tere Naaz Uthane Ko Jee Chahata Hai – Grihashthi – Ghulam Mohammad – Shakeel Badayuni

Dharati Ko Akash Pukare Aaja Aaja Prem Dware– Mela – Naushad – Shakeel Badayuni

The film has excellent Mukesh solo version and an ending with a pathos-full Shamshad Solo version .

Aayee Sawan Rutu Aayee Sajan Mora Dole Hai Man – Mela – Naushad – Shakeel Badayuni

Main Bhawara Tu Phool Yah Din Mat Bhool – Mela – Naushad – Shakeel Badayuni

Mera Dil Todanewale Mere Dil Ki Dua Lena – Mela – Naushad – Shakeel Badayuni

O Jaanewale O Jaanewale Ham Ko Bhool Na Jaana – O Jaanewale – Ali Hussain Moradabadi – Kaif Mustafa

Sajanwa Premkahani … O Dheere Dheere Kahana – O Jaanewale  – Ali Hussain Moradabadi – Kaif Mustafa

+ Geeta Roy

Raja Mohe Le Chal Tu Dilli Ki Sair Ko – Toote Tare – Shaukat Dahelvi (Nashad)

Rehate To Ab Har Ghadi Meri Najar Ke Samne – Toote Tare – Shaukat Dahelvi (Nashad)

+ Other Female Singers

Husn Bano +Parawane O Parawane Tu Kya Jalana Jaane – Pardesi Maheman – Hansraj Behl – Pt. Indra

Raaj Kumari +Ye Bura Kiya Jo Saaf Saaf Keh Diya – Suhag Raat – Snehal – Kedar Sharma

Meena Kapoor +Ab Yaad Na Kar Bhool Ja Aye Dil Wo Fasana – Anokha Pyar – Anil Biswas – Shums Azimabadi

Sitara (Kanpuri) +Ek Teer Chalanewale Ne Dil Loot Liya – Pugree- Ghulam Mohammad – Shakeel Badayuni

Suraiya +Laaye Khushi Ki Duniya Hansati Hui Jawani – Vidya – S D Burman – Anjum Pilibhiti

In our next episode, we will take up Micro View of Mohammad Rafi’s duets of 1948 with the female singers.

Mohammad Rafi’s Solo Song From The FIRST Film With The Music Director: 1952-1953

We have taken up to celebrate Mohammad Rafi’s anniversaries by publishing a series of articles that enlist the solo song of Mohammad Rafi with the music director for the first time in any film. The first 5-year slot of 1944 to 1948 was covered in Part I and Part II in December, 2016. We have covered 1949  and 1950-1951 of the 2nd five-year-slot of 1949 to 1953.

Presently we will take up years 1952 and 1953 of this 1949-1953 period..

 [For the sake for structured documentation, I will be following the alphabetical sequence of Film names in the post.]


Year 1952 had 80 songs to Mohammad Rafi’s account, of which 32 songs were solos.  Naushad gave a slew of Rafi hits in Aan and Baiju Bawra. For Deewana, Naushad had one of Rafi’s immortal Tasweer Banata Hun Teri Khoon-e-Jigar Se.Ghulam Mohammad had had Rafi in films like Ajeeb Ladki, Amber and Sheesha, C Ramchandra in  Saaqui and Maadn Mohan had him in Anjaam. Chitragupt had Rafi songs in a religious film, Bhakta Puran and a Sinbad series film, Sindbad The Sailor. Rafi gets repeat preference by several other music directors too.

O Moorakh Insaan Apne Ko Pehchan – Annadata  – Mohammad Safi – Anjum Jaipuri

Mohammed Safi was an excellent Sitar player and music arranger. He has provided music independently in about 14 films and was a key assistant to Naushad.

Kit Jaoge  Ghanshyam Murari Jaane Na Doonga – Mordhwaj – Narayan Dutt – Bharat Vyas

The most striking feature of the song is so complex orchestration in support of the song as well as for the interludes.

We find second part of the song on YT.


The last year of the 2nd Five-year period of Mohammad Rafi’s career is quite rich in terms of the ‘first film wherein Rafi had a solo song with the music director’ as well as the films with the music directors who seem to have started giving Mohammad Rafi as lead male playback singer. If we have to select one Mohammad Rafi song from this year that has stood up the tests of time that would easily be Madan Mohan’s composition – Ye Duniya Pagalo Ka Bazaar. For the purpose of records, we note that the year had 31 solos songs of Mohammad Rafi out of a total of 71 songs.


This should go on records as the only year where Mohammad Rafi has played back in the films which had the three Kapoor brothers.

Ghata Mein Chup Kar..Jo Dil Ki Baat Hoti Hai – Baaz – O P Nayyar – Majrooh Sultanpuri

O P Nayyar gets to toe in the narrow space through this Guru Dutt film which went on create a crescendo in the years to come. Guru Dutt also comes up in this directorial venture for the first time as a n actor too. The present song is cast in quawalli style. Interestingly, OPN has chosen Talat Mahmood for Mujhe Dekho Hasrat Ki Tasveer Hun Main

Koi Ameer Hai Koi Gareeb Hai – Dana Pani – Madan Junior – Kaif Irfani

The film credit has Shashi Kapoor to as one of the actors, who would have been 14 then.

Ajab Tori Duniya Ho More Rama – Do Bigha Jameen – Salil Chowdhury – Shailendra

Here is the song that can be said to be one more defining step in Mohammad Rafi’s career.

Jal Jal Ke Shama Ki Tarah Fariyad – Fariyadi – Baldev Nath Baali –  Muzaffar Orakhzai

The song is cast in what we know as Mohammad Rafi’s signature style for the songs of sad mood.

Mohabbat Aur Wafa Ki….Chanda Ka Dil Toot Gaya Hai Roney Lage Hai Sitaare – Khoj – Nissar Bazmi – Raja Mahendi Ali Khan

The film has Shammi Kapoor in the lead role. It is said that Mohammad Rafi had charged only Rs. 1.00 to sing this Nissar Bazmi song.

Sulag Rahi Hein Husn Ki Sigdi Aaja Pakaye Prem Ki Khichadi – Madmast – V Balsara – Madhukar Rajasthani

Deft use of mandolin in the prelude and interlude has the distinct imprint of V Balsara. It seems Rafi was mandated to deliver this light-toned song with a dead-pan expression.

Chudiyan Lelo Gori, Pehan Le Chudi – Paapi – S Mohinder – Raja Mahendi Ali Khan

The record-worthy feature of the film is that this is the only film wherein Raj Kapoor was seen in a double role. And of course, we can count one more film where Rafi has playedback for Raj Kapoor.The film had another solo too – Tera Kaam Hai Jalna O Parawane – which had gained immense popularity.

Naram Naram Yeh Garam Garam  Yeh Chane Gagan Ke Tare – Rangeela – Jamal Sen – S H Bihari

We have picked up this song over two other solos – Nadaan Na Ban E Matwale..Kuchh Haath Nahin and Sun Sun Meri Kahani Mushkil Hai Jaan Bachani – because it is similar genre as that of the earlier song. That genre is small-tradespersons-selling-their-wares-by-singing-on-the-streets songs.

To conclude the statistics the music directors with whom Mohammad Rafi sang his first solo song for the 2nd Five-Year-period of Mohammad Rafi’s career, we have had 10 films in 1949,  5 each in 1950 and 1951, 2 in 1952 and 8 films in 1953.

At this stage, Rafi has had established fairly wide base of association with music directors – of the vintage as well as golden era. Also, now more and more of his songs with repeat-music directors are getting high popularity. That sets a very interesting tone for the next 5-Year period.

The Micro View of the Songs of 1948 @ SoY – MY Top Female Solo Songs

When I look back at all the female solo songs for 1948, what I note is that all most each of the major female singers has at least one song that has stood equal appeal to me. In these years, I may have had opportunity to listen to some songs more than the other, but at this stage I do not really feel any major difference in the appeal of these songs on account of that.

So, here are the songs that would call for TOP slot for the female solo songs for 1948, in no particular order:

Lata Mangeshkar – Chanda Re Ja Re Ja Re Piya Se Sandesha Mora Kahiyo Ja – Ziddi – Khemchand Prakash – Prem Dhawan

Lata Mangeshkar – Kab Aaoge Balama… Baras Baras Badali Bhi Bhikhar Gayee – Gajare – Anil Biswas – G S Nepali

Lata Mangeshkar – Ek Dil Ka Lagana Baaqi Tha To Dil Ko Laga Ke Dekh Liya – Anokha Pyar – Anil Biswas – Zia Sarhadi.

Lata Mangeshkar – Yaad Rakhana Chand Taron Ye Suhani Raat Ko – Anokha Pyar – Anil Biswas – Zia Sarhadi

Surinder Kaur – Badnam Na Ho Jaaye Muhabbat Ka Fasana – Shaheed – Ghulam Haider – Qamar Jalalabadi

Meena Kapoor – Ek Dil Ka Lagana Baaqi Tha To Dil Ko Laga Ke Dekh Liya – Anokha Pyar – Anil Biswas – Zia Sarhadi.

Meena Kapoor –Yaad Rakhana Chand Taron Ye Suhani Raat Ko – Anokha Pyar – Anil Biswas – Zia Sarhadi

Shamshad Begum – Dharati Ko Aakash Pukare Aa Ja Aa Ja Prem Dware – Mela – Naushad – Shakeel Badayuni

Shamshad Begum  – Kahe Koyal Shor Machaye Re, Mohe Apna Koi Yaad Aaye Re – Aag – Ram Ganguly – Bahzad Laukhanavi

Geeta Roy – Nandiya Maare Boli Ke Baan, Balam Main Tumse Na Bolun – Gunsundari – Avinash Vyas – Pt. Indra

Suraiya – O Door Jaanewale Vaada Na Bhool Na Jaana – Pyar Ki Jeet – Husnlal Bhagarram – Qamar Jalalabadi

Suraiya – Tere Naino Ne Chori Kiya Mera Naha Sa Jiya – Pyar Ki Jeet – Husnlal Bhagatram – Rajinder Krishna

Suraiya – Kinare Kinare Chale Jaayenge Jivan Ki Naiya Ko Khete Hue – Vidya – S D Burman – Y N Joshi

Of these top female solo songs for 1948 MY (each one as equal) choice for The TOP female solo songs would be:

Suraiya – Tere Naino Ne Chori Kiya Mera Naha Sa Jiya – Pyar Ki Jeet – Husnlal Bhagatram – Rajinder Krishna

Shamshad Begum  – Kahe Koyal Shor Machaye Re, Mohe Apna Koi Yaad Aaye Re – Aag – Ram Ganguly – Bahzad Laukhanavi

Meena Kapoor –Yaad Rakhana Chand Taron Ye Suhani Raat Ko – Anokha Pyar – Anil Biswas – Zia Sarhadi

Surinder Kaur – Badnam Na Ho Jaaye Muhabbat Ka Fasana – Shaheed – Ghulam Haider – Qamar Jalalabadi

Lata Mangeshkar – Chanda Re Ja Re Ja Re Piya Se Sandesha Mora Kahiyo Ja – Ziddi – Khemchand Prakash – Prem Dhawan

We also note that SoY have awarded the Best Female Playback Singer jointly goes to Lata Mangeshkar and Shamshad Begum for Chanda re ja re ja re and Kaahe koyal shor machaaye re respectively.

We will now over to the The Micro View of the Songs of 1948 @ SoY – Duet Songs from the next episode.

P.S. All the posts on Female Solo Songs of The Micro View of the Songs of 1948 are aggregated here.

Fading Memories…. Unforgettable Songs: December, 2017

Mohammad Rafi’s Solo Song From The FIRST Film With The Music Director: 1950-1951

To commemorate Mohammad Rafi’s anniversaries, we commenced a series of articles on Mohammad Rafi that essentially tried to bring the solo song of Mohammad Rafi with the music director.  We had planned to take up one five-year slot in a chronological order to bring all the first films in which Mohammad Rafi had had a solo song with a music director. The first slot of 1944 to 1948 was covered in Part I and Part II in December, 2016. We have covered the year 1949 of the 2nd five-year-slot of 1949 to 1953.

Presently we will take up years 1950 and 1951 of this 1949-1953 period..

 [For the sake for structured documentation, I will be following the alphabetical sequence of Film names in the post.]


Mohammad Rafi had had 29 solos out of 108 songs in 1950. Of the prominent music directors who had now frequenting Rafi more, Hans Raj Behl had 3 Hindi and Punjabi films with Rafi, Husnlal Bhagatram had 5 films and Naushad had 1, which had Mukesh as lead singer. I find only Akele Mein Wo Gabarate To Honge as the only song that is most recognizable solo.

Hum Ishq Mein Barabad Hai – Aankhen – Madan Mohan – Raja Mahendi Ali Khan

Madan Mohan and Mohammad Rafi’s work together which was to open up a class of its own opens the account. The song is filmed on Shekhar.

Saahil Jo Dubo De Kashti Ko.. Saahil Ki Tamanna Kaun Kare – Baawra – Krishna Dayal – Amar N Khanna

Incidentally, this is one of those songs that Mohammad Rafi has lip-synched for Raj Kapoor.

Jalte Deep Bujh Gaye Chha Gaya Andhera – Jalte Deep – Shardul Kwatra + T K Das – M A Taaj

Here is a song that is pleasant to listen to even though cast in sad mood.

Zamana Jo Aankhe Dikhata Hai Zamana Ko Aankhen Dikhata Chale Chal– Man Ka Meet – Shardul Kwatra – Sarshar Shailani

This song is credited to Shardul Kwatra solely, hence taken up in our present list.

Dekho Dekho Paanv Mein Pahen Ke Paayaliya – Janmashtami – Shyam Babu Pathak – Bharat Vyas

The lyrics do seem playful enough, but difficult to guess how the songs would have been filmed.

Naari Tere Jeevan Ki Ye Karun Kahani – Veer Babruwahan – Chitragupt – Anjum Jaipuri

After a few attempts we get a maiden Chitragupt – Rafi solo combination in this song. Apparently there is not much that would make the song to remember for, except that it is to open one more very fruitful partnership in the years to come.

We end the year with 5 music directors who had had a first solo song recorded for Mohammad Rafi.


Year 1951 has 26 solos from a total of 72 Mohammad Rafi songs. The year had Naushad switching over to Mohammad Rafi for background voice of Dilip Kumar and we have some of the top Mohammad Rafi songs in Deedar. Husnlala Bhagatram also has a twin solo for Mohammad Rafi in Afasana – Duniya Ek Kahani Re Bhaiya – which also was quite popular. Shankar Jaikishan has used Mohammad Rafi for special songs in RK’s Aawara, which is also going to be a very notable trend initself.

Dhanwano Ki Dhan Nagari Ki Sun Lo Ek Kahani – Dashavtar – Avinash Vyas – Sagar Hussain

Avinash Vyas was to use Rafi very selectively in his Hindi and Gujarati film music.

Hey Shankar Hey Pralayankar Rakho Mohe Apni Sharan – Hanuman Patal Vijay – S N Tripathi – B D Mishra

S N Tripathi went onto create a few all-time great of Rafi songs, of which most easily remembered are ghazals of Lal Quila or Ye Hai Janam Janam Ke Phere or a Binaca chartbuster Jara Samane To Aao Chhaliye.or Hatimtai’s Parvar Digar-e-Alam.

Suraj Ghoome Chand Ghoome Ghoome Gagan Sara– Ishwar Bhakti – Sonic – Girdhar – Pt. Narendra Sharma – Trilok Kapoor

1951 seems to be the year of Bhakti Sangeet as far Mohammad Rafi is concerned! Mohammad Rafi was known to deliver his best even for new music directors even when he was at his peak.

Kisiko Iska Pata Ho Na Ho – Jauhri – Pt. Harbans Lal – Tajnath Zaar

For a change, we have a very light song too,

The song has a very interesting second version too:

Poochhiye Na Haal Jee, Palle Nahin Maal Ji – Mukhda – Vinod – Azeez Kashmiri

This is first opportunity when Vinod has been able to use Rafi in a solo (with chorus support) song, that too in a very light situation so tellingly.

Year 1951 also has 5 music directors who scored first solo with Mohammad Rafi. The year, on the whole, seems to be the game turner in the career path of Mohammad Rafi..

We will take up last two years of 2nd Five-Year period of 1949-1953 in the next installment.

We will continue our search for Unforgettable Songs that seem to Fading away from our Memories every second Sunday of the month……..

Disclaimer: All images are sourced from net. All copyrights of the respective image remain with the original owner of the image.

The Micro View of the Songs of 1948 @ SoY – Female Solo Songs – Lata Mangeshkar (3)

The 3rd part of Lata Mangeshkar’s solo songs for 1948 can be said to be a mixed reflection of what we heard in the earlier part #1 and # 2, in that there are songs that went to to become evergreen and that it has a fairly diversified portfolio of music directors too.

Popular solo songs

Chanda Re Ja Re Ja Re Piya Se Sandesha Mora Kahiyo Ja – Ziddi – Khemchand Prakash – Prem Dhawan

Other Solo Songs

Piya Milane Ko Aa, Main To Jeeti Hun Tere Bharose Piya – Majboor – Ghulam Haider – Nazim Panipati

Dil Mera Toda Mujhe Kahin Ka Na Chhoda – Majboor – Ghulam Haider – Nazim Panipati

Daman Hai Chak Chak Hai Mera- Ab Koi Jee Ke Kya Kare Jab Koi Ashara Nahi – Majboor – Ghulam Haider – Nazim Panipati

Dilwalo Dilo Ka Mel Dilo Ka Khel Jo Jit Gaya Wo Hara – Meri Kahani – Datta Koregaonkar – Wahid Qureshi

Nanhi Bundiya Jiya Laharaye Badal Gir Aaye – Meri Kahani – Datta Korgaonkar – Nakhshab Jarachvi

Dekho Duniyawalo Ujhada Hai – Hamari Kahani (Unreleased)Hemant Kedar (Real name: Ramkrishna Shinde) – Banwasi

Mohan Kayun Nahi Aaye – Hamari Kahani (Unreleased)Hemant Kedar – Banwasi

Aao Sej Bichhayen Sajani – Hamari Kahani (Unreleased)Hemant Kedar – Banwasi

Bedard Tere Dard Ko Seene Se Laga Ke – Padmini – Ghulam Haider – Wali Sahab

Tere Naino Me Nindiya Nindiya Mein Sapana, Sapno Mein Sajan – Didi – Mukund Masurekar- Indeevar

Tujhe O Bewafa Ham Zindagi Ka Aasara Samajhe – Ziddi – Khemchand Prakash – Raja Mahendi Ali Khan

Jadoo Kar Gaye Ksi Ke Naina Ki Man More Bas Mein Nahi – Ziddi – Khemchand Prakash – Prem Dhawan

Ab Kaun Sahara Hai Jab Tera Sahara Chhoot Gaya – Ziddi – Khemchand Prakash – Prem Dhawan

In our next episode I plan to sum up My Top Female Solo Songs for 1948.

Business Sutra |4.2| Can the End Justify the Means?

Business Sutra |4| Conflicts

We have covered three episodes of Devdutt Pattanaik’ TV serial on CNBC 18:  Business Sutra.

The first presented to us the most visible form of the business – the corporation: its meaning, its purpose and its action perspective. In the second episode Devdutt Pattanaik discusses Leadership: Role of the leader, Context of the leader and Leadership in different business cycles. The third episode relates to the Business Ethics and Morals:  business ethics and dilemmas, relationship between owner and the organization  and The Right (Dharma) – the Ramayana way and the Mahabharata way.

The present episode, 4th one in the series, deals with Conflicts, wherein we have looked at one of classic set of conflicts – that between the Board and the CEO.

Business Sutra |4.2| Can the End Justify the Means?

Cambridge Dictionary defines the phrase “the end justifies the means” as said about a situation in which the final aim is so important that any way of achieving it is acceptable.

With that in mind, although it isn’t fully misguided to attribute an ultra-realist grey area line of political thinking to the Father of Modern Political Science Niccolò Machiavelli, this consequentialist misquote is an over simplification of Machiavelli’s realist Republican philosophy and the phrase itself never appears in his work in the way in which it is often passed around in modern times (all an isolated and specific sentence “the ends justify the means – Period”).

Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one’s conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct. Thus, from a consequentialist standpoint, a morally right act (or omission from acting) is one that will produce a good outcome, or consequence. In an extreme form, the idea of consequentialism is commonly encapsulated in the saying, “the end justifies the means“, meaning that if a goal is morally important enough, any method of achieving it is acceptable.

Consequentialism is usually contrasted with deontological ethics (or deontology), in that deontology, in which rules and moral duty are central, derives the rightness or wrongness of one’s conduct from the character of the behaviour itself rather than the outcomes of the conduct. It is also contrasted with virtue ethics, which focuses on the character of the agent rather than on the nature or consequences of the act (or omission) itself, and pragmatic ethics which treats morality like science: advancing socially over the course of many lifetimes, such that any moral criterion is subject to revision. Consequentialist theories differ in how they define moral goods.

Some argue that consequentialist and deontological theories are not necessarily mutually exclusive. For example, T. M. Scanlon advances the idea that human rights, which are commonly considered a “deontological” concept, can only be justified with reference to the consequences of having those rights.

A quick look at couple of videos:

Does the End Justify the Means

Learning to Love Machiavelli: Don MacDonald at TEDxBoston

Machiavelli’s Dilemma | Matt Kohut | TEDxBeaconStreet

In the introduction to The Bhagavad Gita According to Gandhi, Gandhiji writes:

He who is ever brooding after result often loses nerve in the performance of his duty. He becomes impatient and then gives vent to anger and begins to do unworthy things; he jumps from action to action, never remaining faithful to any…When there is no desire for fruit, there is no temptation for untruth or himsa. Take any instance of untruth or violence, and it will be found that at its back was the desire to attain the cherished end.

A few pages later he expounds upon the subject.

We should do no work with attachment. Attachment to good work, is that too wrong? Yes, it is. If we are attached to our goal of winning liberty, we shall not hesitate to adopt bad means. 

For such a complex topic, let us see what Devdutt Pattanaik has to say in Segment 2 of the episode 4 – Can the End Justify the Means?, as the Indian Mythology’s point of view.

Governance is always referred to as the spirit of governance because like we’ve said governance needs to go beyond what the rulebook says. It is not just a adhering to the rules, it is about taking into account and keeping in mind the interest of all stakeholders.  So I have a couple of questions that to me seem like governance conflicts and I want to know what our scriptures have to say about them. Can the end justify the means, because I think in various points in the Mahabharat and as laid out in your book as well, Krishna violates every rule of war and yet he does that so as to be able to help the Pandavs win.

Look at the assumption. If the rules are followed then good will happen. This is what we are saying. So rules are almost good. First of all this very idea is alien to Indian because rules exist in a context and the same rule in a different context may not apply. For example you have a rule that says that if you obey the father you are a good son. Now in the Mahabharat, Bhishma obeys his father’s. Father says one day that that he’s unhappy because he has fallen in love with a young woman. The young son Bhishma, a.k.a Devvrat, discovers his father has fallen in love with the a fisher woman. He goes to the fisher woman and says I want you to marry my father. The woman says that you know I won’t marry unless my children become kings and the only way my children become kings if you give up the throne. He says I give up the throne. She further says that  if your children may with fight my children. He says that I will never marry. So the son sacrifices for the father.

Now son sacrificing on father’s word seems good in the Ramayana has a terrible effect in the Mahabharat, because by that one act he destroys the family tree. Al children born after that are not born normally. They were born through the intervention of sages or the gods and what ends up is the Mahabharata the whole fight for the kingdom. So we have to be very careful when we say rules equal to good because as every good lawyer knows that not the letter of the law, but the spirit of the law is important.

Now coming to the Mahabharat, when you’re talking about ends and mean,s let’s ask us as what happens at the end of the Mahabharat? On one side you have the Kauravas and the other side is the Pandavas. Let us ask ourselves you know what the victory would be like. At the end of the war, 100 of the Kauravas are killed. Good, the villains are dead so that must be natural law. But let’s look at the narrative and this is unfortunately in modern retellings we don’t focus – each and every son of the Pandavas is killed.  Five sons born of Draupadi are also killed. Draupadi now argues all the villains have been killed but so are all of my sons too. What kind of victory is that?  I have got the kingdom but the children are dead. What happens to Krishna Hi is cursed that 36 years later his entire family will be destroyed. So in the end, everybody has lost.

The story of Mahabharat is not about winning the war but is about empathy. Remember when the war is being fought Krishna goes to Duryodhan and says I want peace. Duryodhan then says no I don’t want to have peace. At the end they enter into an agreement a contract that for 13 years these people who have gambled away the kingdom will go to the forest. When they come back they will get their kingdom again. It was a very clear contract right. Athe end of that period when the one part has been complied with the other party has to honour his end of the bargain. Duryodhan then violates the contract (defaults). He argues on calendar, he argues on time, he argues that you know maybe they didn’t really do it, for I caught them before that. He  keeps arguing about technicalities. Finally Krishna says enough is enough. How about giving them five villages and he says no. Krishna said how about the house with five rooms. Duryodhan says no not a needlepoint of territory will I give. This is where his intention is being released. Till then he was following the law, Even now, he was following the rules, what he said was well within the rules, but his intention was dishonorable. So he had to be pushed to the corner and when he was pushed to the corner, it resulted in war.

But that war, in turn, ended up destroying most people.

If the war had not been fought this King, who doesn’t care for anybody else, would have thrived. Resultantly, what kind of a society would have existed?

What kind of God do we worship in Krishna when he broke every rule of that war just to ensure that the Pandavas win? I understand that his intent was to restore fair and just governance, or to ensure that a king like Duryodhan does not get to continue. Yet how can the end justify the means?

What is the end of the Mahabharat not the war? You see that is the twelfth chapter of the Mahabharat. There are six more chapters after this which again is not part of common translation. Do you know what is the original name of the Mahabharat ? It is called Jaya, Jaya as in victory. There’s another word for victory in India – it is called Vijaya. Why have they given the strange name, Jaya, to this book? Because, the story does not end with the war, which was   the bloodshed where nobody is a winner.Krishna says a king who behaves like an animal then the societies that he rules is good as not existing. Kauravsa were killed, Pandavs suffer heavy damage.A the end of 36 years we are told that the Pandavas died and the eldest brother Yudhisthira, who is supposed to have created this wonderful Kingdom where all rules are followed, goes to heaven. As he enters the heaven, and can you imagine what, the first thing he sees there are 100 Kauravsa. This is called Swarga Aharonika Parva. Remember Yudhistithir has walked up the mountain; he has given up everything – his kingdom, his wealth, his cows, his gold. Even his wife dies, he doesn’t turn around. He have given up relationships His brothers die, yet he doesn’t look back. He just keeps walking upfront.. Now when he comes to the gates of heaven, this great man who’s given up everything, he sees Kauravas. He is furious. He says how these murderers can be kept over there when my brothers or my wife are not here. He keeps arguing. His brothers are in hell because in those 36 years perhaps they were not all that great. We don’t know much but there are stories about some details of misdeeds. For example, Drupadi favored one of the husbands, Bhim was a glutton and Arjuna was very insecure and conceited. So he is told that for each of the reasons, they were banished to hell. The gods asks Yudhisthira as to why is he so angry. He says the gods are being unfair because the villains cannot be in heaven.

Now imagine why Vyasa is putting this twist in the tale. Because he wants to communicate something deeper He says, Yudhistira, you have been a Great King, you have given up everything except your anger. You have you have already killed these bad guys. They have been punished. You have ruled a kingdom for 36 years. So why have you not forgiven them yet. If you can’t forgive them, if you can’t purge your heart of anger what have you actually given up? Why should heaven be yours?

Oh, so Yudhisthir doesn’t get a place in heaven?

No. he is being asked that unless you purge your heart of anger and fill it up with forgiveness you cannot enter Heaven. That is Vijaya, victory over others but not Jaya, the victory over you. That will only happen when there is empathy in your heart. Yudhisthira does not display empathy. He is unable to forgive the villain. It is not eternity. They have done the crime and have paid for it.

While Ramayana talks about perfect King, Mahabharat talks about the process of creating the perfect King.  The process of perfect king is for the CEOs and the leaders and managers to ask themselves why are they doing what they are doing?  Is it coming from exploitation of people and then make lots of money, travel in BMWs? Is that the point of living because then you’re no different from the lion the alpha male. In ancient India you were supposed to sit on the lion throne which means you are not supposed to be the lion. You have to outgrow the lion. You do not have to be this great alpha male and dominate society. It is not about Vijaya, defeating the other alpha males, It is about Jaya which is conquering the animal inside you that enables you to not be Duryodhan and say not a needlepoint of territory I will give, not an inch in negotiations. You get this false sense of triumph. It is about discovering that why do kings exist. You don’t exist to make money for yourself. You exist to ensure wealth is generated and distributed so that everybody in your kingdom can discover the purpose of life.

So does Yudhisthir still get a place in heaven?

Eventually everyone does

So, do the rest of the Pandavas, the four of them, are not in heaven?

There are infinite lives. This is just one of their many lives.

Okay at the end of that life does he get a place in heaven?

 I’m waiting for the next episode. 🙂

I have one last question on this I can understand why the Pandavs went to hell. You explained it. Draupadi favored one out of five husbands; Bhima was a glutton: Arjun was vain; Yudhisthir still held on to his anger, But then why did the Kauravs get into the heaven, considering that they are no better off.

It is like what happens during appraisals. I don’t think he’s good enough to get the raise. Or the guys whom you hate get the raise and guys whom you love don’t get the raise. So we decide we know the rules of God. The best time to meet people is post-appraisal. Everybody imagines who they consider as heroes and who they consider villains. Somehow it never matches that of the management. The management has heroes and villains of their own. The upstream and downstream gaze is very different. Everybody believes they know who belongs in heaven and who belongs in hell.

I am not saying that the Kauravs belong in hell. I am curious to know that despite everything that they did, denie the Pandavs their rightful Kingdom, why did they end up going to heaven?

Well, one the reason is because of the land on which they died. That was considered to be very auspicious. It was just luck , a very good luck to happen to die on a land which was considered to be holy, that’s all. But you see the fact is your stay in heaven is not permanent. It is not heaven with a capital H. It is heaven with a small h, which is a destination to stop over. You will live in heaven for only a limited duration of time and then you will move on to the next life and the next life. It is like you know that Swarg is a place where you go when you have got enough equity and hell is the place for you with has too much debt.

So, is a right means for a right is more a matter of chance?

It is like using equity or debt to fund your growth. Too much of either is likely to be dysfunctional. And what is ‘too much’ is matter of the context!  The end justifies the means” managers often are so blinded by their own success, they don’t see the limitations of their approach, they actually believe that they can continue like this, or they believe that this is the only way they can be successful.

In our journey of Devdutt Pattanaik’s TV serial Business Sutra, we will move on to the 5th episode – Education.

Note: The images used in this post are the irrevocable property of their respective creator. They have been taken up courtesy the internet, so as to illustrate the point under discussion.