The Micro View of Best Songs of 1944 @ SoY : Female Solo Songs – Amirbai Karnataki [2]

In continuation to Part [1]

Amirbai Karnataki had a very productive 1944. Pagli Duniya, which was the maiden film of Bulo C Rani, Amirbai Karnataki had as many as seven solo songs.

Ghar Humko Jalaoge Duniya Ko Jal Denge – Pagli Duniya – Ramanand – Bulo C Rani

Ghata Chhayi Hai Ghanghor, Kya Lai Hai – PaglI Duniya – Ramanand – Bulo C Rani

KyuN Aankh Milai Thi Gar Aankh Churani The To – Pagli Duniya – Sharma – Bulo C Rani

Sham Bhai Ghar Aa Jaa, O Raja – Pagli Duniya – Wali Sahab – Bulo C Rani

Dil Se Dard Bharpur Hai, AankhoN Mein Hai Pani – PaglI Duniya – Ramanand – Bulo C Rani

Na DekhuN Main Darpan, Sakhi Ri Mohe Dekh Gaya Sajan – Pagli Duniya – Pt. Indra – Bulo C Rani

Aa Re Tu Aa Ab Na Sata – Police – Ramesh Gupta – Panna Lal Ghosh

Baaj Rahi Kis Aur Muraliya .. – Police – Ramesh Gupta – Panna Lal Ghosh

MaiN Aapki HuN Bina, Tum Geet Ho Kanhaiya – Us Paar- Pt. Madhur – Phiroz Nizami

Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music – July 2021

Welcome to July 2021 edition of IXth Volume of Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music.

First and foremost, my most humble homage to Shri K S Bhatiaji our very active member of SoY family, who bade eternal farewell to this mortal world on 30.06.2021,

We pay our tribute to Legendary Actor Dilip Kumar Passes Away at 98 After Prolonged Illness .on 07.07.2021.

As can be expected, there was a torrent of tributes, depicting various facets of Dilip Kumar. Here are a few selected ones:

Farewell to a Titan – Farewell to the clarity of his diction, the Urdu or Hindustani dialogues flowing off his tongue so naturally, not seeming like ‘dialogue’ at all. It fit his persona. Farewell his commitment to his craft, the tiniest details that he infused his character with, never mind that the audiences may not notice, or appreciate.

Also: the songs that reflect The Many Moods of Dilip Kumar and a duets or solos wherein the character of Dilip Kumar sings Dilip Kumar in Ten Moods

Ae Mere Dil Kahin Aur Chal: Thespian Dilip Kumar Bids AdieuSundeep PahwaThe Times of India, dated March 23rd 1954, wrote about Dilip Kumar after he received the First Filmfare Trophy for Best Actor – “Extremely good looking, with dark, intense eyes and a superbly modulated speaking voice, Dilip Kumar has no equal in dramatic performance on the Indian Screen, today…A serious student of life, this dashing young Hero believes that a higher purpose should guide us in life.”

‘My professional name is Dilip Kumar’: Encounters with one of India’s greatest actorsAnwar Abbas  – On a personal level, the man was always affectionate, lovable and even adorable. He was the best ever to enter and emerge from Hindi film studios.

The one and only Dilip Kumar: The actor who shaped world’s biggest film industry –  Hindi cinema is synonymous with Dilip Kumar. The legendary actor embodied, embellished, and shaped the biggest film industry in the world.

Dilip Kumar, thespian of many parts – Dilip Kumar will not only be remembered because he was an actor par excellence, but also because he re-lived his characters. Even without uttering a single word his eyes can be seen speaking a thousand words.

Did Dilip Kumar, the holy grail of acting in Hindi cinema, facilitate the star-centricity of the industry today?Naseeruddin Shah – He was truly matchless at creating a demand for himself, sometimes at the cost of the film he was in — a legacy that weighs heavier on the Hindi film fraternity than his nuanced performances.

Life lessons from Dilip Kumar for a ’90s kid –  SUDHAKAR JAGDISH – …. “our father always had a Dilip Kumar scene for us to emulate, even in our revolts. As Salim, played by Dilip Kumar, confronts his father Akbar the Great, played by the legendary Prithiviraj Kapoor, for the love of his life, he doesn’t move, his hands motionless, but his voice remains firm… elevating the scene o something of a textbook on familial maryada”.

The Serious Actor and the Matinee Idol – a tribute to Dilip Kumar – Beneath the hurt lover withdrawing into himself, there was also one of the most dazzling smiles in our cinema. And there was a showman too, a man with style, panache, star quality. … In the best work of this actor, the two poles of Realism and Stylization blended into one.

ताजिंदगी विभाजन की लकीर को पाटते रहे Dilip Kumar – Ravish Kumar – He was Dilip Kumar too and Yusuf Khan too. He was so easily able to cross the line of division created in 1947.

Dilip Kumar on how the studio system made way for independent directorsNasreen Munni Kabir – The ’50s was the beginning of the erosion of authority a picture maker had on the marketing of his product. During the ’40s and up to the ’50s, the director was the principal man, over and above the stars, but after the ’50s, his position was gradually undermined, and the distributor and the financier became the top people. Whereas on one side there was boom, and on the other side, there was decline in the inner health of cinema.

Maybe July Is Now the Worst Month for Great Performers from the Golden Age

Note: Here is a link to the four-part article I had posted after I had read Dilip Kumar’s autobiography Dilip Kumar: The Substance and The Shadow – An Autobiography – as narrated to Udayatara Nayar.

We now move on to other tributes and memories:

Mehfil completes 4 years! by posting the songs ‘one composer singing for another composer’

Raja Mehdi Ali Khan: Lyricist Par Excellence is a tribute to a rare combination of poet, writer and lyricist on his 55th remembrance day.

On Guru Dutt’s 96th birth anniversary: Why the Master of Gloom fascinates us even todayShaikh Ayaz – The maker of iconic Pyaasa and Kaagaz Ke Phool died when he was only 39. Though he made few films and according to many accounts, led a depressed life he continues to intrigue decades after his death.

Nostalgia post: on a Prakash Mehra-Bachchan audiocassette (and listening to films before watching them) – The tape was a collection of songs and dialogues from the films the two men did together, starting with the 1973 Zanjeer and continuing till the 1982 Namak Halaal.

Shailendra Sharma @ Golden Era of Bollywood has posted following memorial tribute posts:

To commemorate the birth centenary of Sahir Ludhianvi, a series of articles on

Sahir’s Songs of Romance is launched. The first article is about Sahir Ludhianvi’s  One Film Association(s) with eleven different music directors.

Laagi Chhute Na Ab To Sanam – Remembering Chandrashekhar is a tribute to the versatile actor who passed away last month.

July 2021 episode of Fading Memories, Unforgettable Songs takes up Mohammad Rafi’s First Duet Song With The Music Director: 1944-1946 to commence the series Mohammad Rafi’s First Duet with a Music Director. This is a follow-on to the series Mohammad Rafi’s first solo song with a music director.

We now move on to posts on other subjects –

Charulata & Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam: Satyajit Ray & Guru Dutt’s Contrasting WorldsAlpana Chowdhury – Ray’s film is an outward-looking one, literally and metaphorically. Unlike the closed, confining chambers in which Choti Bahu pines for her husband, the Dutta household is bright and airy, with windows opening out, on to the world outside.

Pyarelal, Mehmood, Laxmikant, Jeetendra, Mukesh, Kishore Kumar — a rare photograph.

The Jal Tarang Songs – Musical Ripples present ten songs where the instrument has been used in a manner in which its tinkling is distinct

From Bollywood Rewind Sampada Sharma – Indian Express’s weekly column:

Micro View of Best Songs of 1944 @SoY took up  Setting the Stage and then have taken up My Top Male Solo Songs and then continued with Female Solo Songs with 1st part of solo songs Amirbai Karnataki. In its review of Male Solo songs. SoY has conferred KL Siagal as the Best Male Singer and jointly selectedAe qatib-e-taqdeer mujhe itana bata de; Do naia matware tihare hum par zulm karein, andChhupo na chhupo na chhupo na (My Sister: Music Pankaj Mullick ) as best Male Solo Songs for the year 1944 in Wrap Up 1 .

SoY has also presented Best songs of 1944: Wrap UP 2, conferring the Best Female Singer trophy to Amirbai Karanataki fo the song Chanda Desh Piya Ke Ja (Bhartruhari, Lyrics: Pt. Indra- Music: Khemchand Prakash)

In continuation to our tradition of ending the post with a few songs of Mohammad Rafi, each one of which basically has a link with the topics discussed in the present post.

Woh Apni Yaad Dila Ne Ko Ek Ishq Ki Duniya Chood Gaye – Jugnu (1947) – M G Adeeb / Asgar Sarhadi, B.A. – Firoz Nizami

Wah Re Zamane Kya Rang Dikhaye, … Pal Mein Hasaye, Pal Mein Rulaye…  – Ghar Ki Izzat (1948) – Ishwar Chandra Kapoor – Gobinda Ram

Watan Ki Raah Mein Watan Ke Naujawan Shaheed Ho – Shaheed (1948) –  with Khan Mastana and chorus – Raja Mehandi Ali Khan – Ghulam Haider

Dil Ko Hua Tumse Pyar, Ah Hai Tumhein Ikhtiyar……… Takara Gaya Tumse Di Hi To Hai – Aan (1952) – Shakil Badayuni – Naushad

Nayi Zindagi Se Pyar Kar Ke Dekh, Is Ke Rup Ka Singar  Kar Ke Dekh  – Shikast (1953) – with Lata Mangeshkar and chorus –  Shailendra – Shankar Jaikishan

Asha Ke Jab Dep Bujhe To Man Ka Deep Jala, Jag Ka Rasta Chhod Musafir Teri Rah Chala, Apni Chhaya Mein Bhagwan Bitha De Mujhe.. Main HuN Tera Tu Apana Bana Le Mujhe – Insaniyat (1955) – Rajinder Krishna – C Ramchandra

Dil Leke Daga Denge … Yaar Hai Matlab Ke – Naya Daur (1957) – Sahir ludhianvi – O P Nayyar

Toote Hue KhwaboN Hum Ko Yeh Shikhaya Hai – Madhumati (1958) – Shailendra – Salil Chaudhuri

Sukh Ke Sab Sathi, Dukh Mein Na Koy – Gopi (1970) – Rajinder Krishna – Kalyanji Anandji

Na Tu ZameeN Ke Liye Na AsmaaN Ke Liye.. Tera Wajood Hai.. Ab Sirf Dastan Ke Liye -Dastan (1972) – Sahir Ludhianvi – Laxmikant Pyarelal

I look forward to your inputs to enrich the contents of Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music.

Disclaimer: This monthly series of posts is my best-effort-based compilation of posts on Hindi film songs that I normally visit regularly. As I record my sincere thanks to all the original creators of these posts, any other posts that I have nor covered herein shows my lack of awareness of existence of such posts and is by no means any disrespect to their work. The copyrights to the posts, images and video clips remain the properties of the original creators.

The Micro View of Best Songs of 1944 @ SoY : Female Solo Songs – Amirbai Karnataki [1]

Having completed the Male Solo Songs section of Songs of 1944 of the Best songs of 1944: And the winners are? we now move over to the Female Solo Songs.

As has been observed, the byaer 1944 has around 240 female solo sngs for which the HFGK has been able to identify the singers. This will be the year when we will have all the female solo songs in the voices of vintage era singers. As such, for me, it is going to be a very in-depth exposure to the vintage era composition style.

We have not repeated here the songs that have been covered in the  Memorable Songs of 1944

Solo songs of Amirbai Karnataki

Memorable Songs of 1944  has five solo songs of Amirbai Karnataki, of which one is the swashing hit Mil ke bichhad ke gayi ankhiyan (Rattan, Music: Naushad Ali).Here we have the songs credited to Amirbai Karnataki in HFGK and which are available on YT, except aound 6/7 songs that could not traced on YT.


Ari Hawa Tu Sun Le, Sun Le Main Bhi Aati HuN – Anaban – Pt. Madhur- Gyan Dutt

Paas Tum Ho To Dil Ko Qarar Hai – Bade Nawab Saheb – Shums Lakhnavi – Bashir Dehlvi

Ikrar Ke Parde Mein MUjhe Na Sajha De – Badi Baat – Ramanad – Phiroz Nizami

Soti HuN Ab Sab Soti HuN, Tum Chanda Mujhe Jaga Dena – Badi Baat – Saraswati Kumar Dipak – Phiroz Nizami

Teri Pee Pee Ki PukaroN Ne Dil Lut Liya – Bahnwara – Pt. Indra – Khemchand Prakash

Duniya Ki AankhoN Se Sharamanewale,… Suni Hai Tujh Bin – Bhanwara – Ramanand – Khemchand Prakash

Soona Mandir Mera Sakhi Ri, Jagmag Jagmag – Bharthari- Pt. Indra – Khemchnad Prakash

Aye Chand Bata De Tu Mewra Chand KahaN Hai – Caravan – Ramanad – Bulo C Rani

Bijali Giranewale, Bijali Tu Phir Gira De– Caravan – Shrma – BulO C Rani

Aaj Kar Le Ji Bhar Ke Singar, Tohe Jaana Hai – Maa Baap – Roopbani – Alla Rakha

Sham Hui O Panchhi Aa, Ab Apne Ghar Ko Aa – Maa Baap – Roopbani – Alla Rakha

We will take up the rest of teh solo songs of Amirbai Karnataki for the year 1944in our next episode.

Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs – July 2021

Welcome to July 2021 edition of the IXth volume of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

We recapitulate that the 2021 theme for the IXth volume of our Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs is Future of… as the basis for Creating and Maintaining Sustained Success.

Our topic for the discussion for the month is – The Future of Manufacturing.

  • The Industry 4.0 technologies are changing the comparative advantages that drive competitiveness.
  • While technology is boosting productivity in today’s manufacturing hubs and largely offsetting rising wages, it is also reducing the cost of capital and slowing the need to offshore production toward lower-wage countries. Moreover, other factors such as proximity to consumers, the supply of skilled labor, and ecosystem synergies are playing a role as drivers of reshoring.
  • The rising value-added of pre- and post-production activities can reduce the relative importance of the mid-value-chain production stages.
  • The skill bias of technological progress and the increased capital intensity of production will continue to reduce demand for less skilled workers, polarize the job market, and contribute to rising income inequality….If history is a guide, new demand for labor and unforeseen occupations will emerge in the future.
  • The opportunities for the manufacturing in the developing countries will be on account of:
    • A rising middle class in the developing world could lead manufacturers to locate closer to fast-growing consumer markets.
    • The recent research has identified a set of industries outside of manufacturing – “industries without smokestacks” include horticulture, agro-processing, tourism, and some ICT-based services, among others-  that share the tradability and higher productivity features of manufacturing and have great scope to generate growth and employment.[1]

Manufacturing is no longer simply about making physical products…The changing economics of production and distribution, along with shifts in consumer demand and the emergence of “smart” products, are pushing manufacturers to explore radically new ways of creating and capturing value…. given the emergence of more complex ecosystems of fragmented and concentrated players across a growing array of manufacturing value chains, businesses that understand emerging “influence points” will have a significant strategic advantage. As the manufacturing landscape evolves and competitive pressure mounts, driven by the needs of ever more demanding customers, position will matter more than ever.[2]

Manufacturing the future: The next era of global growth and innovation, a major report from the McKinsey Global Institute, presents a clear view of how manufacturing contributes to the global economy today and how it will probably evolve over the coming decade. Our findings include the following points:[3]

The Future of Manufacturing- The World Economic Forum’s Future of Manufacturing project tracks how the global manufacturing ecosystem is evolving. This five-minute investigation explores the future of industry and asks does manufacturing really matter? The Future of Manufacturing project identifies what companies and countries must do to win in a rapidly changing world.

Manufacturers must create a succinct list of priorities that will ensure financial resilience.

  • Focus On Aspects That Can Be Controlled to identify opportunities to improve operational resilience and put processes in place that enable adaptability.
  • Diversify Concentrated Supply Chains by re-examining supply chains and their weak points to reduce the risk of disruptions as much as possible.
  • Balance Risk Mitigation With Capacity Management so as to minimize risks by focusing on specific solutions and production processes, and by broadening offerings.
  • Think Differently About Upskilling and Labor Sourcing with help of remote work force technologies and digital transformation to create a work environment that can attract workforce talent.
  • Time for Leadership to think of better long-term solutions that support adaptability and resilience to take leadership with the future of manufacturing and do things differently. .[4]

Two key priorities that emerge for  both governments and businesses are education and the development of skills. Companies have to build their R&D capabilities, as well as expertise in data analytics and product design. They will need qualified, computer-savvy factory workers and agile managers for complex global supply chains. In addition to supporting ongoing efforts to improve public education—particularly the teaching of math and analytical skills—policy makers must work with industry and educational institutions to ensure that skills learned in school fit the needs of employers.

In all the decisions about where and how to play in this new environment, there is no master playbook—and no single path to success. But by understanding these shifts, roles, and influence points, both incumbents and new entrants can give themselves the tools to successfully navigate the new landscape of manufacturing.

Further reading:

We will now turn to our regular sections:

We now watch ASQ TV, wherein we refresh our viewpoints about–

Performance Excellence Models and Leadership – Paul Grizzell, co-author, Insights in Performance Excellence, discusses why performance excellence models don’t take hold and what leaders need to do to guarantee a successful initiative launch.

In this episode: Paul Grizzell’s full Interview

We have taken up one article from Jim L. Smith’s Jim’s Gems this month:

Boredom – generally, any experience that is predictable and repetitive can result in boredom.

It is an attitude, rather than a condition. And since attitudes are learned, they can be unlearned and replaced with more productive attitudes.

Boredom can be a signal that you may be just a step away from going through some real growth. Some experts suggest that boredom can be a ‘call to action.’ It can be a catalyst for change. It can provide an opportunity for thought and reflection.

If you find yourself bored, it is time to look within and initiate meaningful change.

‘From the Editor’ (of Quality Magazine) – by Darryl Sealand, we have

Unintended Consequences – It’s the law – Adam Smith said that the individual, even one working purely for his own gain, is “led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention,” and that end is the benefit provided to the public interest or the public good. It is a prime example of what is called a positive unintended consequence.

The ratio of positive to negative unintended consequences is about 3 to 1.

The best, and only, approach to take the Law of Unintended Consequences, is to surround ourselves with the tools and knowledge to reap our vigilante justice.

I look forward to your views / comments / inputs to further enrich the theme of Future of… as the basis for Creating and Maintaining Sustained Success.

Note: The images depicted here above are through courtesy of respective websites who have the copyrights for the respective images.

[1] The future of global manufacturingBrahima Sangafowa Coulibaly and Karim Foda

[2] The future of manufacturing

[3] Manufacturing the future: The next era of global growth and innovationJames Manyika, Jeff Sinclair, Richard Dobbs, Gernot Strube, Louis Rassey, Jan Mischke, Jaana Remes, Charles Roxburgh, Katy George, David O’Halloran, and Sreenivas Ramaswamy

[4] The Future Of Manufacturing: What Executives Are SayingWillem Sundblad

The Micro View of Best Songs of 1944 @ SoY : My Top Male Solo Songs

I have attempted to choose  My Top Male Solo Songs from the ones that have been covered in the Memorable Songs of 1944 and the songs I could additionally locate and covered in the earlier post on Male Solo Songs. If there is only song of a singer, then I have selected that song to.

So, here are My Top Male Solo Songs for the year 1945, in the alphabetical order of the name of the film:

Jagmohan Sursagar – Hai kaun dil nahin jo pareshan-e-arzooArzoo- Lyrics Khwaja Kidwai – Music: Subal Dasgupta

KL Saigal –  Thukra rahi hai duniya hum hain ki so rahe hain – Bhanwara – Lyrics Kidar Sharma; Music Khemchand Prakash

Arun Kumar – Bedard Ko Bulao Siti Baja Baja Ke… – Carwan – Munshi Aziz – Bulo C Rani

G M Durrani – Samjhe The Jise Apna Nikla Wo Begana – Chand – Qamar Jalalabadi – Husnlal Bhagatram

Ashok Kumar – Mauj Karane Ke Liye Hai Duniya – Chal Chal Re Naujwan – Pradeep – Bulo C Rani

Rafiq Ghazanvi – Aaya Toofan, Aaya Toofan, Jag Bharat Ki Nari – Chal Chal Re Naujwan – Pradeep – Bulo C Rani

SD Batish – Khamosh nigaahein sunati hai kahaniDaasi Lyrics DN Madhok – Music Pt. Amarnath

Hemant Kumar – Aaram se jo raatein kaatein wo ahsq bahana kya jaaneIrada – Lyrics Aziz Kashmiri; Music Pt. Amarnath

Anil Biswas (& chorus) – Arr ra ra gaao Kabir, udao abirJwar Bhata: Lyrics Narendra Sharma; Music Anil Biswas

Manna Dey- O Prem Diwani, Sambhal Ke Chalana – Kadambari – Miss Kamal B A – H P Das

Surendra – Yahi fikra hai shaam pichhle savere, hassenon ki galiyon ke hon here phereLal Haveli – Lyrics Shams Lakhanavi; Music Mir Saheb

Chitalkar – Tum bhool ke phande mein haseenon ke na anaLal Haveli – Lyrics Shams Lakhanavi; Music Mir Saheb

Karan Diwan – Jab tum hi chale pardes laga kar thesRattan – Lyrics DN Madhok; Music Naushad

Charlie – Ek Kahar Barapa Karata Hai Jab Aae Budhapa – Raunaq – Ishwar Chandra Kapoor – C Ramchandra

Sundar – Nayano Ke Teer Chala Gayee Ek Shahr Ki Laundiya – Shukriya – G A Chisti

SoY has conferred KL Siagal as the Best Male Singer and jointly selectedAe qatib-e-taqdeer mujhe itana bata de; Do naia matware tihare hum par zulm karein, andChhupo na chhupo na chhupo na (My Sister: Music Pankaj Mullick ) as best Male Solo Songs for the year 1944 in Wrap Up 1

Fading Memories…. Unforgettable Songs: July 2021

Mohammad Rafi’s First Duet Song With The Music Director: 1944-1946

To commemorate the memory of Mohammad Rafi on his birth anniversary, December 24, 1924, @ Kotla Sultan, Sindh and death anniversary, July 31, 1980 @ Mumba, we have had taken up Mohammad Rafi’s first solo song with a music director, from December 2016 till 2020. The present series of Mohammad Rafi’s First Duet Song with the Music Director is the natural follow-on series.

The series is quite simple at its core. Mohammad Rafi’s exceptionally long career is divided in five-year periods, pick up the first ever association with music director(s) in the chronological order in that five-year slot and then pick up the first film which has the first duet song of the music-director – Rafi combination. If the film has more than one duets, then we take up the least heard one for a closer look and take note of the others. The primary focus would be male-female duet, but we will take due note of first male-male duet or even triads from that combination if and as and when they come up in later years. We will limit the scope of the present series till the year 1969.

I do not have any pretense of evaluating influence of different music director on Mohammad Rafi’s singing style or the contribution of each other to the furtherance of each other’s careers Our goal is quite simple: refresh our memories of Mohammad Rafi’s fading-from-the-memory-duet-songs and bring them on one page and enjoy them on the call.

1st Five-Year Period: 1944 -1948

That Mohammad Rafi’s talent was first taken note of in 1937 in public function whereat he sang for K L Saigal, his initial introduction with music director Shyam Sundar are now a matter of folklore. Shyam Sundar recorded the first ever film song of Mohammad Rafi in Punjabi film Gul Baloch (which was released in 1944) in 1942. As is well-known now, that was a duet, with Zeenat Begum – Pardesi…Sohneys Oye Heeriye Oye. The song had become an instant hit, well before the film was released. The records also show that that film had one more duet, composed by Dhani Ram, with Munnavar Sultana – Achhanve – too.  


Once Mohammad Rafi reached Bombay (as it was then known) from Lahore, after Shyam Sundar gave him an introduction letter, the way Mohammad Rafi could meet Naushad are the events very vividly covered in Mohammad Rafi’s biographies. For the purpose of our present series, the story begins after Mohammad Rafi got his first break in Hindi films under Naushad, which happened to be a chorus song – Hindustan Ke Hai Hum, Hai Hindustan Hamara; record # GE3416 – in the company of Shyamkumar, Allauddin Naved and B. M. Vyas in the film Pahele Aap.

The year 1944 has one more landmark in Mohammad Rafi’s personal life- his marriage with Bilquis Bano.

Naushad’s association with Mohammad Rafi took some time before it turned into a Fevicol bond. Naushad–Mohammad Rafi combination has yielded around 149 songs to the Hindi film industry.

Tum Dilli Main Agre, Mere Dil Se Nikale Haye Fasla Sau Kos Ka, Humane Sawan Bito Jaaye – Pahle Aap– with Shyam Kumar – Lyrics: D N Madhok – Music: Naushad Ali [Record # GE3419]

A close listening to the lyrics indicates that Mohammad Rafi seems to be singing for an actor who plays a female role in this nautanki song.

We will make an exception here and listen to another duet from this film –

Ek Bar Unhein Mila De, Phir Meri Tauba Maula… Ab To Lagi Booja De, Phir Meri Tauba Maula – Pahele Aap– with Shyam Kumar – Lyrics: D N Madhok – Music: Naushad Ali [Record # GE3417/19]

Mohammad Rafi seems to have been given a second fiddle in comparison to more experience Shyam Kumar, but that has not deterred the budding singer a bit.


We have four music directors opening their relationships of duets with Mohammad Rafi in the year 1945.

Shyam Sundar is always remembered for his meticulous choices of instruments (Kis Tarah Bhoolega Dil; Gaon Ki Gori, 1945), wonderful composition (Mausam Aaya Hai Rangeen; Dholak, 1951) and choice of singers (Saajan Ki GaliyaN Chhod Chale; Bazar, 1949).

Jab Dil Ho Kaabu Mein to Dildar Ki Aisi Taisi… Tauba Tauba Husn Ke Sarkar Ki Aisi Taisi.. – Gaon Ki Gori, a.k.a. Village Girl – with G M Durrani, an unknown male singer – Lyrics:  – Wali Sahab – Music: Shyam Sundar

This song is on record number GE3596, i.e. later in then the Pahle Aap songs here above,  but is widely considered as Mohammad Rafi’s first Hindi film song.

Incidentally, during his very initial years, G M Durrani was Mohammad Rafi’s role model for singing. As fate would have it, it was Mohammad Rafi who played back to GM Durrani  in Unke Khayal Aaye To Aate Chale Gaye (Lal Paththar, 1971; Lyrics:  Hasrat Jaipuri; Music – Shanker Jaikishan)!

H P Das (1905 – 1989) was one of the leading Bangla music directors who was successful in Hindi films as well.

Dil Diye Chalein… Hum Jiye Chalein Aise – Begum – with Mohantara Ajinkya – Lyrics: G S Nepali – Music – H P Das

We have a very pleasant, fast-paced song. Mohammad Rafi sounds so young.

Gobind Ram was a versatile music director of 40s. He is considered to have great influence in shaping the Hindi film music of 40s.

Chhoti Si Ek Banaayenge Naiyya… Khud Hi Banenge Us Ke Khewaiya – Hamara Sansar – with Shamshad Begum, Zohrabai – Lyrics: Ramesh Gupta – Music: Govind Ram

Mohammad Rafi sings in lower scale to begin with then raises the scale to higher octave.

Asides: Mohammad Rafi acted in a cameo role in Laila Majnu song Tera Jalwa Jisne Dekha (with S D Batish and chorus; Lyrics: Tanvir Naqvi- Music: Gobind Ram)

Alla Rakha (a.k.a. A R Qureshi) would need any introduction to those who have even rudimentary exposure to the classical music. He was basically the famous tabla player, who composed music for around 30 films between 1943 and 1958.

Topi Wale Babu Ne Dil Chheena Re Mora Man – Kul Kalank – with Amirbai Karnataki – Lyrics: Roopbani – Music: A R Qureshi

For relatively new entrant, Mohammad Rafi exudes fair amount of confidence.


Mohammad Rafi’s career wagon seems to be picking up the momentum, wih 8 muisc directors using his voice for the duets.

Firoz Nizami was the first music director who gave Rafi popularity in Lahore by offering him a chance to sing for AIR at its Lahore radio station.

Main Jab Chhedun Prem Tarana Naache Mere Saath Jhamana– Amar Raj – with Mohantara Ajinkya – Lyrics: Pandit Fani – Music : Firoz Nizami

Interestingly HFGK mentions ‘other singer’ to accompany Mohantara Ajinkya.  Shri Sudhir Kapur explored the matter in details and what comes out is truly unbelievable. The details can be read@ Main jab gaaun geet suhaanaa

Asides: It would be opportune to enlist the song on the side 2 of that fateful record GE3795 – a solo by Mohammad Rafi

S Quereshi is not a familiar name among the music directors.

Macha Di Dhoom Duniya Mein Islaam Ke Deewanon Ne – Arab Ka Sitara – with Ameerbai Karanataki – Lyrics: Shewan Rizvi – Music: S Quereshi

HFGK does not have names of the singers identified for the songs of the film. I have selected the song from one of the highly authentic-considered spreadsheet compilations of Mohammad Rafi’s filmography by Mauveen. However, when we listen to the song, female voice is accompanying in mukhada and then is part of the chorus, only. So, for all practical purposes, the song is a Mohammad Rafi solo only.

Shankar Rao Vyas was a classically trained vocalist and musician. He had 35 Hindi, 5 Marathi and 3 Gujarati films to his credit in the career spanning 1937 to 1955.

Naino Se Mad Madira Pilaakar Tumne Humein Deewana – Ghunghat – with Nirmala – Lyrics: Ramesh Gupta – Music: Shankar Rao Vyas 

We have here a romantic song that begins in form of exchange of dialogue that is acceptance of mutual love.

S N Tripathi[1] who worked under the baton of legendary Saraswati Devi was a versatile artist a music director, director, and actor.

Jai Hind…Ye Hind Ki Kahaniyan… Sansar Ke Itihas Ki Ye Hai Amar Kahaniya – Mansarovar – with Geeta Dutt, Binapani Mukhrjee – Lyrics: Saraswati Kumar Dipak – Music: SA N Tripathi

HFGK lists the singers as ‘Chorus’ only. However, and other reliable sites mention Geeta Dutt and Beenapani Mukherjee as co-singers along with chorus.

Premnath has had formal training of music in his formative years. Rangbhoomi is his maiden film as an independent music director. He has given four songs to Mohammad Rafi, one with chorus and three duets with Shamshad Begum.

Khud Samajh Lo Iletajha Kya Hai, Hum Hi Keh De To Phir Maza Kya Hai – Rangbhoomi – with Shamshad Begum – Lyrics: Arzoo  Lakhanavi – Music Premnath

Mohammad Rafi sings in a typical vintage era style here.

Other duets are: Aag Lagi Tan Man Dhan Sab Mein Narak Bhayo Sansaar (with Shamshad Begum – Lyrics: Arzoo Lakhanvi) does not seem to be available on YT and Jo Aage Badhe Use Peechhe Hata Do with Shamshad Begum – Lyrics: Pandit Fani) – a second part of the Rafi and Chorus song Sue Manzil Badhaye Chala Chal. – is available together in one clip@

Hanuman Prasad is known mostly for the discovery of Geeta Roy, when she was 16, and gave her few lines in foiur songs of film Bhakta Prahlad (1946). He is also director of the present film, Raseeli.

Dil Mujhko Jalaata Hai Main Dil Ko Jalaati Hun – Raseeli – with Shamshad Begum- Lyrics: Hanuman Prasad – Music: Hanuman Prasad

Here is the song that is inherently poignant, as Rafi and Shamashad render it in low octaves. It must have been quite an experience to the budding Rafi!

The film has another Shamshad – Rafi duet, Yah Nayan Kyun Sharma Gaye (Lyrics: Gaafil Harnaalvi) where Rafi can be heard in early raw tone.

Bulo C Rani is a leading vintage era music director.

Jaao Jaao Na Bolungi Main Accha Ji Hato Hato – Saalgirah – with Kaumudini Deekshit , an unknow female singer – Lyrics: Wali Sahab – Music: Bulo C Rani

This a mischievous mood romantic song, where Mohammad Rafi indulges in music-director guided ‘harkats’ of interrupting with Aisa Kya and all. In the later years, Mohammad Rafi was known to do so spontaneously to make the songs lively.

Taufil Farooqi (1916-1988) is fondly recalled as creator of the original Zumka Gira Re (Dekhoji, 1947 – Shamsahd Begum).

Baithe Hain Tere Dar Par Kuchh Karke Uthenge – Sona Chandi – with Shamshad Begum – Wali Sahab – Music: Taufil Farooqui

This can be considered maiden Chhed Chaad song for Mohammad Rafi.

We will make an exception to include another duet –

Man Ki Suni Nagariya Suhani Bani – Sona Chandi – with Amirbai Karnataki – Lyrics: Khawar JamaN – Music: Taufil Farooqui

Here we have a totally romantic duet. Mohammad Rafi quite easily matches sur-by-sur with experienced Amirbai.

We will take up Mohammad Rafi’s First Duet with a Music Director for the years 1947 and 1948, of the First Five-Year Period: 1944-1948, in our December 2021 episode.

[1] S N Tripathi’s Unremembered Songs from 1941 to 1968

Sahir’s Songs of Romance – One Film Association(s)

This is the year of Sahir Ludhianvi’s birth (March 8, 1921) centenary. As can be expected, there was an avalanche of articles in magazines, newspapers and blogs in the month of March 2021. At first glance, that gave me the impression that everything that needs to be said about Sahir Ludhianvi has been already covered in all these articles. One easily remembers many of his 724 songs, particularly of his most productive decades of 50’and ‘60s, too. As such, I was not able to figure an approach where I can get to know Sahir’s songs, in more details, more intensely, and more systematically.

As I kept pondering through the commemorative articles, two aspects attracted my attention –

  • One, apart from the Golden Era music directors S D Burman, N Dutta, Ravi, Roshan, O P Nayyar, Madan Mohan, Khayyam, Jaidev or Kalyanji Anandji, Laxmikant Pyarelal and R D Burman of second generation, or Rajesh Roshan of the still next generation of music directors, he has worked with many other music directors as well.
  • Two, he is generally remembered for his poems of rebel. However, as a lyricist he would certainly have written songs of pure romance as well.

These two aspects have led me to pen the present series of articles under the title, Sahir’s Songs of Romance. I plan to cover all music directors with whom Sahir Ludhianvi has worked in his career spanning from his inception to the world of HFM in 1948 till his passing away, including the films which were either released thereafter or even not released.

I have selected the songs that have different happy forms of expressions of love, whether sublime or mundane. Thus, the songs that have feelings of pathos or bitterness are excluded. I have also chosen not include qawwalis here.

I have studiedly maintained my intervention to the minimum. I have selected as much of the lyrics of first lines of the song that Sahir uses to set the tone of romance in the song. Then, I have also presented the selected lines from each song, which in my view, manifests Sahir’s versatility as poet and as a lyricist. Listening to the YT clip provides the charm of the entire song.

We will begin the series with Sahir’s Songs of Romance, composed by the music directors who had only one film association with Sahir Ludhianvi and then will proceed with ascending numbers of associations.

One Film Association(s)

Sahir Ludhianvi has penned lyrics for 122 films, spanning his association with 31 music directors. Of these 31 music directors, as many as fourteen music directors have had one film association with Sahir. Sahir’ first step into the Hindi Film Music world was in 1948, which, incidentally, happens to be a one film association with music director G D Kapoor. In his most prolific decade, 50s, Sahir had six one-film associations, the highest for any decade. Of these, three films were in 1953 only, just as he was settling into a successful association with S D Burman. 60s have only two one-film associations. The decade of 70s when Sahir had done 26 films, four were one-film associations. 80s has one one-film association. Thus, the present episode also provides us a vintage view of the entire career of Sahir Ludhianvi’s entire carrier.

Here, I have not been able to include any song, composed by G D Kapoor (Azadi Ki Raah Par, 1948), Nirmal Kumar (Lal Nishan, 1959) and Robin Chatterjee (Masoom, 1960). Azadi Ki Rah Par and Masoom had subjects wherein a romantic film had, in fact, no place. Lal Nishan has only one Sahir song, which is a qawwali. As such, the music directors of these films, G D Kapoor, Robin Chatterjee and Nirmal Kumar are not represented in this episode.

Meri NaghmoN Mein …. Un Mastaanaa Aankhon Ki Kahaani Hai, Mohabbat Hi Mohabbat Hai Jawani Hi Jawani HaiAlif Laila (1953) – Talat Mehmood – Shyam Sundar

Mohabbat meri duniya hai
Mohabbat shaayari meri
Mohabbat mera naghmaa hai
Mohabbat zindagi meri
Mohabbat ke sahaare…
ek nayi duniyaa basaani hai

mohabbat hi mohabbat hai
jawani hi jawani hai……

Kisi Ne Nazar Se Nazar Jab Mila Di…..Meri Zindagi Ha Ha Meri Zindagi, Jhum Kar Muskara Di Meri Zindagi – Humsafar (1953) – Talat Mahmood, Asha Bhosle – Ali Akbar Khan

zubaN se to hum kuchh na bole the lekin,…

nigahoN ne dil ki kahani suna di

.. har ek sans masti me dubi huyi hai….
khuda janta ki kya se pila di

meri taza duniya pe rang aa gaya hai
kisi ne khayalo ki mehfil saza di

Ye Mausam Ye Hawaye Ye Rut Suhani Fir Na Aayegi…. Jawani Mauj-e- Dariya Hai Jawani Jo Laut Ke Na Aayegi – Shole (1953) – Hemant Kumar, Geeta Dutt – Dhaniram

nigahe mila or ek jam lele …

jawani ke sir koi lizam lele….

nigahe mila….

nigaho ke saaye me palti hai duniya….

hasino ke hamraah chalti hai duniya…

hasino ke pehlu me aaram le lo…nigahe mila…..

Aaj Kisi Ke Dil Ke Haatho Ne, Dil Ke Taaro Ko Chhed Diya – Savdhan (1954) – Asha Bhosle – Vasant Ramchandra

aaj meri tanhaai apne aap se bhi sharmaane lagi
dil ki dhadkan nagama bankar, hontho par lahraane lagi

jo saahil ko saath baha le
un dhaaro ko chhed diya

har jhokhe se mujhko unake saath ki khushbu aati hai
tanman mein ek thandi thandi aag bikharti jaati hai
jaane kisaki shokh najar ne…

angaaro ko chhed diyaa

Dil Ki Duniya Mein Aa Ke Na Jaana … Tujhe Meri Qasam Na Rulana, Ya Rabba Teri Teri… Yaad.. – Chingaari ( (1955) – Lata Mangeshkar, Unknown male voice – Manohar

aaja pyar ke tarane gaye…
aaja aisa ek jaha basaye

chand ka diya ho
jismein tare loriya sunaye….
sapno ke dole mein jhula jhulaye hamein bag-e- sama

bhigi bhigi rat ye najare
dil ki bat kahte hai sitare
aankho me nur bhar de dil me sarur bhar de

arzu yahi hai meri justzu yahi hai
na ja dilbar na ja ankhyio me aake
o mere dilruba mere dil se
na ja hai ye dil ki dua

Kashti Ka Khamosh Safar Hai, Shaam Bhi Hai Tanhayi Bhi, Dur Kinare Par Bajati Hai Laharo Ki Shahnayi Bhi ….. Aaj Mujhe Kuchh Kahena Hai – Girl Friend (1960) – Kishore Kumar, Sudha Malhotra  – Hemant Kumar

kabse tumhaare raste pe main phul bichhaaye baithi huN
kah bhi chuko jo kahna hai mani aas lagaaye baithi huN

dil ne dil ki baat samajh li, ab munh se kya kahana hai
aaj nahi to kal kah lenge, ab to saath hi rahna hai

kah bhi chuko, kah bhi chuko jo kahna hai

chhodo ab kya kahna hai

Umr Huyee Tumse Miley Phir Bhi Jaane Kyun Aisa Lage Pahli Baar Mile HaiN – Bahurani (1963) – Lata Mangeshkar, Hemant Kumar – C Ramchandra

jhum uthaa tan, man me ek aisi baat aa gai
jiski thi lagan, ….
aaj vo milan ki raat aa gai

akele rah gaye, akhiyaan bah gayi

umr hui tumase mile phir bhi jaane kyo
aise lage jaise pahali baar mile hai

Chor Hamne Fasaya… Haye…. Ke Bach Na Paya, Aaha…. Pakad Mein Aaya – Bhai Ho To Aisa (1972) – Lata Mangeshkar – Sonik Omi

haye re kabhi nain ghumaye kabhi hoth chabaye
maine iska pyar bhadkane ko sabhi teer chalaye
maiN thi tak mein

kabse fasa aaj sabab se
ho ab to chakha du maja

Ab Se Pehle To Ye Dil Ki Haalat Na Thi…Aaj Kya Ho Gaya … Zindagi Dusaro Ki Amanat Na Thi – Nawab Sahib (1978) – Usha Mangeshkar – C Arjun

apne andaaz par naaz karte the hum

humko apni qasam
gair se baat karne ki fursat na thi

aaj kya ho gaya

Baahon Mein Teri Masti Ke Ghere, Saanson Mein Teri Khushboo Ke Dere – Kala Patthar (1979) – Lata Mangeshkar, Mohammad Rafi — Rajesh Roshan

khvabo me jisako tanha javani baraso se takati thi,

tu vahi hai

chhune se jisako sine me meri lau jag sakati thi,

tu vahi hai

kuchh khvab mere, kuchh khvab tere

 yun milate jate hai

dil khilate jate hai,

lab gun-gunate hai

sason me teri, khushabu ke dere khushabu ke dere

Ye Aankhein Dekhkar Hum Saari Duniya Bhool Jate Hain – Dhanwaan (1981) – Lata Mangeshkar, Suresh Wadkar – Hridaynath Mangeshkar

tum apni mahki mahki julf ke pecho ko kam kar do
musafir in mein girkar apna rasta bhul jaate hai

… …..  … …. ….. …. …

bahut kuch tumse kahne ki tamanna dil me rakhte hai
magar jab saamne aate ho to kahna bhul jaate hai

Mohabbat mein zuba chup ho to aankhein baat karti hai

ye kah deti hai vo baate jo kahna bhul jaate hai

With this we come to the end of the present one-film association phase of Sahir Ludhianvi’s collaboration with different music directors. As can be expected, the range of music directors, films and film subjects, is very wide. Even the span of years also spreads over Sahir Ludhianvi’s entire career. Apparently, the duets – one of the most popular and universal formats for expression of romance on the screen – is predominant in the present episode. However, we easily get to feel Sahir’s creativity, his range of words, ease of use of different languages and different forms specific to such languages. 

We wil take up Sahir’s Songs of Romance with two-film association music directors in our next episode.

The Eponymous Principles of Management – Coase’s Ceiling and Floor

Every interaction between two persons faces inherent “internal friction”, caused by everyone’s own biases, beliefs, experiences, knowledge, outlook, natural resistance to change etc. This creates a situation where that person does not fully hear or understand or accept what is being told or is not able to fully explain what he thinks. A similar set of “internal friction” factors operate within the counterpart of that interaction. And then there are factors like their past and present relationships, their perception of why the transaction is (or should be) taking place, what it is ultimately going to lead to, etc. that cause ‘externa; friction’ And as more and more persons directly or indirectly participate in a chain of interaction(s), the organization needs to generate enough power, by way of processes, systems, structures, strategies, even rewards and punishments etc. so that the sum total of all the frictions is overcome and the wheels of organization’s purpose starts, and remains, running.

You may have started thinking that we are leading you towards the eponymous laws of friction, viz. Amontons’ First and Second Law of Friction or Coulomb’s Law of Friction. No, we do not want to revisit the school and college lessons on friction[1]. For the ease of convenience let us accept that we do remember ‘that friction is > linear in the number of independent components. This, for example, is why you can’t build a clock that will run for ten years on a winding, although it would be trivially easy to *design* one.

‘In the context of organizations, each additional person adds more friction until a point — the “Coase’s ceiling” — at which all the energy that the organization can generate goes to overcoming internal friction, and there is none left over to apply to the organization’s nominal purposes.

‘Actual experience implies that Coase’s Ceiling is ~~100 persons, and that it is an extremely hard ceiling indeed. This limitation of Coase’s ceiling would still operate even if the Peter Principle [or for that matter Dilbert Principle or Putt’s Law or Gervais Principle] could be overcome. [2]

Yes, that is a right guess! People may interact with anyone from any hierarchical level to any other person at any other hierarchical level, irrespective of his level of competence (or incompetence in his job, or in the interaction skill, the interaction will have some degree of internal and some degree of external frictions, nonetheless.

Author Clay Shirky, in the chapter two of his book. Here Comes Everybody – The Power of Organizing Without Organizations[3] [4]has presented the term Coase’s Celling and its adjunct term Coase’s Floor.

The Coase’s Ceiling is defined as –

The point above which the transaction costs of managing a standard institutional form prevent it from working well.

It indicates the maximum size an organisation can grow to before the costs of managing its internal complexity rise beyond the gains the increased size can offer. At that point, it becomes more efficient to acquire a resource externally (e.g. to buy it) than to produce it internally. This has to do with the relative transaction costs generated by each way of securing that resource. If these costs decline in general (e.g. due to new communication technologies and management techniques) two things can take place. On the one hand, the ceiling rises, meaning large firms can grow even larger without becoming inefficient. On the other hand, small firms are becoming more competitive because they can handle the complexities of larger markets. This decline in transaction costs is a key element in the organisational transformations of the last three decades, creating today’s environment where very large global players and relatively small companies can compete in global markets. Yet, a moderate decline does not affect the basic structure of production as being organised through firms and markets.

In 2002, Yochai Benkler was the first to argue that production was no longer bound to the old dichotomy between firms and markets. Rather, a third mode of production had emerged which he called ‘commons-based peer production’. Here, the central mode of coordination was neither command (as it is inside the firm) nor price (as it is in the market) but self-assigned volunteer contributions to a common pool of resources. This new mode of production, Benkler points out, relies on the dramatic decline in transaction costs made possible by the internet.  Clay Shirky develops this idea into a different direction, by introducing the concept of the ‘Coasian floor’. [5]

The Coase’s Floor is defined as –

The point below which the transaction costs of a particular type of activity, no matter how valuable to someone, are too high for a standard institutional form to pursue.

These definitions represent the constraints under which institutions, or people, really operate w.r.t. theories from the 1937 paper The Nature of the Firm by Nobel Prize winning economist Ronald Coase to access the various challenges that Transaction Costs pose to institutions. Clay Shirky’s observation in his book, which states as “[Every] institution lives in a kind of contradiction: it exists to take advantage of group effort, but some of its resources are drained away by directing that effort. Call this the institutional dilemma–because an institution expends resources to manage resources, there is a gap between what those institutions are capable of in theory and in practice, and the larger the institution, the greater those costs.”, correlates the concept of friction presented at the beginning of this article.


The Ronald Coase’s Nobel prize-winning paper, The Nature of the Firm, in essence, provided a breakthrough on the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy.. However subsequent discussions emanating from this paper carried the logic to Coase’s Theorem etc, which in turn is considered to be the basis for origin of the terms Coase’s Ceiling and Floor,. That paper, or for that matter even so-called Coase’s Theorem. are essentially subject matters of Economics and as such would be basically beyond the scope of our discussions at this stage.

Here are some representative references that can be used to gain more knowledge of the subject matter –

[1] Friction

[2] Opposite of the Peter Principle by John D. Cook

[3] Here Comes Everybody. (2008) @ Wikipedia

[4] Here Comes Everybody Summary and Review – Clay Shirky

[5] Analysis Without Analysis. Review of Clay Shirky’s “Here Comes Everybody”Felix Stalder