Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music – April, 2016

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Welcome to April, 2016 edition of Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music.

We will commence our present episode with My Favorites: Songs of Spring. The only restrictions placed in the selection of the songs were that the lyrics should actually mention the word ‘Spring’ in any of its synonyms – Bahaar. Basant. Vasant-  and that the picturisation should show some signs of the season, even if it only means that the song is picturised outside. This is why Aaya basant hai aaya from Subhadraharan (1964) or Dekho mausam kya bahaar hai from Opera House (1961) do not make it to the list. It’s also why Ketki gulaab juhi (Basant Bahar / 1956) is missing from this list, even though the lyrics describe the season so well. Here are some of the less heard songs from this list –

  • Bahaar aayi khili kaliyan  – Alif Laila (1953) – Lata Mangeshkar – Shyam Sundar – Sahir Ludhianvi
  • Aayi bahaar hai  – Hamari Shaan (1951) -Kishore Kumar, Shamshad Begum – Chitragupt – Raja Mehdi Ali Khan
  • Din suhane mausam bahaar ka  – Poonam (1952) – Lata Mangeshkar – Shankar Jaikishan – Shailendra
  • Shaam-e-bahaar aayi Shama Parwana (1954) – Mohammed Rafi, Suraiya – Husnlal Bhagatram – Majrooh Sultanpuri
  • Aayi jhoomti bahaar –  Insaniyat (1955)  – Lata Mangeshkar, Talat Mehmood – C Ramchandra

I have also added one from my side –

We now move over to our regular Anniversaries section.

Lalita Pawar: The Dominating Matriarch And Scheming Manthara – A tribute to the prolific Indian actress, with some interesting anecdotes on her life and times By Niilesh A Raje on her 100th birthday .

Lalita Pawar - in 1940s

Before she met with a freak accident in 1942, Lalita Pawar- born Amba Laxman Rao Sagun on 18 April 1916 – used to play the lead roles.

We have one song from a 1938 film. The clip does not have the original soundtrack with video, but the video uploader, Shalin Bhatt has filled in the gap with some rare images of Lalita Pawar

Sakhi Prem Sudhaa Bharne Aayi – Duniya Kya Hai (1938) – Music: Anna Saheb Mainkar .

Big FM had a Lalita Pawar Birthday Special

The Swar Kokila Kanan Devi – A tribute to Kanan Devi (22 April 1916 to 17 July 1992) on her birth centenary – Here is pip into her well-known and not-so-well-known songs –

On Mac Mohan’s Birthday, Remembering Sholay’s Forgotten Villain – Khalid Mohamed completes the whole picture of Mac Mohan’s persona.

Shamshad Begum’s songs by OP Nayyar is a tribute to Shamshad Begum (14 April 1919 – 23 April 2013) on her 97th birth anniversary. The back-to-back posts on Shamshad Begum’s songs by Naushad and C Ramchandra last year there was inevitably a reference to OP Nayyar as he is the third member of the trinity which made the greatest contribution to her. To this list we can expect Hansraj Behl in the future who has77 Hindi songs (solos and duets), and 50 songs from Punjabi films. Shamshad Begum’s songs by SD Burman had been presented under the title East meets West. Here are some of the less heard ones –

‘Jo Bhi Ho Tum Khuda Ki Kasam, Lajawab Ho’: Remembering Shakeel Badayuni By Peeyush Sharma – One rare feat (for those times) that gets associated with Shakeel is his hat-trick of Filmfare Best Lyricist Awards in the years 1961, 1962 and 1963. Forty six years ago, on 20th April, lyricist, poet, shayar, Shakeel Badayuni breathed his last owing to diabetes related complexes. He was just 53 years old

Two of his great ghazals, rendered by Begum Akhtar

Silsila Khatm Na Hoga Mere Afsaane Ka: Shakeel Badayuni, a Tribute – Pavan Jha – He sang his own song in Paak Daman (1957)

We now take a look at posts on other subjects –

Simple melodies of Ravi would normally have dominance of santoor and flute in their orchestration. In most of the cases, the lyrics came first and the tune later. Please enjoy 24 of his lovely songs from LINK TO SIMPLE MELODIES OF RAVI.

Ten of my favourite funny songs is a list of ten songs that are actually funny, funny because of the lyrics, the rendition, the picturization—whatever (in some stellar instances, all of the above). These may not be songs that make one laugh out loud, but they are songs that always make you smile rather more widely than usual.

We have picked up a couple of less heard songs

How Bhupinder Singh blends the ghazal with the guitar – Bhupinder had a tough call to take: should he be behind the microphone or strum a guitar? Having both wasn’t going to be easy. Some of Rahul Dev Burman’s greatest songs, including “Dum Maro Dum” (Hare Rama Hare Krishna, 1971), “Chura Liya Hai Tumne” (Yaadon Ki Baaraat, 1973) and “Mehbooba Mehbooba” (Sholay, 1975) were backed by Singh’s musical fingers. Singh has a formidable body of work in film music, having sung for over 50 films. “Dil Dhoondta Hai” (Mausam, 1975), “Naam Gum Jayega” (Kinara, 1977), “Karoge Yaad Toh” (Bazaar, 1982), “Kisi Nazar Ko Tera Intizaar”(Aitbaar, 1986), “Baadalon Se Kaat Kaat Ke” (Satya, 1998) are just a few of his most popular songs, but the ones that need to rediscovered, like the man himself.

‘In Aradhana, Sachin Karta Gave Me My Life’s Biggest Hit’: In Conversation with Shakti Samanta By Peeyush Sharma -In this never-published-before interview, Shakti Samanta recalls the superlative and everlasting music that became the hallmark of his films.. Shakti Samanta made four films each with O P Nayyar, Shankar Jaikishen and S D Burman. With R D Burman, he did the maximum number of films – 11 in Hindi plus four more in Bengali. Three of his films were with the famous Bengali singer-composer Shyamal Mitra and two each with Ravi and Ravindra Jain.

The post has several very-well songs. I have located one which is not much heard.

Dekho Dekho Jee Balam  – Bahu (1955) – Geeta Dutt, Talat Mahmood – Hemant Kumar – S H Bihari

Kite (Patang) Songs  is a result of several factors that happened in the background. To us what matters is the outcome –

Hindi film songs in SwahiliManish Gaekwad – Taarab, a fusion of Indian, Arabic, and African sounds popular on the Swahili coast of Southeast Africa, has a special place for Hindi film music. Traditionally sung in the Swahili language at weddings and social gatherings, Taarab songs weave several themes into the lyrics, including romance and politics…… There are over two dozen of these songs on YouTube – yet another instance of the phenomenal popularity impact of Hindi film music beyond its traditional markets.

Nutan on the sets of Laila Majnu (November, 1953)

Costumed as Laila, the youthful Nutan signs autographs for fans who visited the “Laila Majnu” set

Costumed as Laila, the youthful Nutan signs autographs for fans who visited the “Laila Majnu” set

Madhubala Goes Chinese (January, 1957) – Members of the Chinese Women’s Delegation dropped in on madhu bala-chinesethe sets of Om Prakash’s – whom most of us know as a veteran comedian and character actor –  “Gate­way of India” the day they arrived in Bombay. Madhubala welcomed them cordially and is seen chatting with two of the members.

Om Prakash entertained the Delegation to the screening of a special Chinese song-and-dance number filmed for “Gateway of India”. – Chal Mere Dil Ke Udan Khatole Udata Ja Tu Hole Hole  – Mohammad Rafi – Madan Mohan-  Here Madhubala, Bhagwan and a party of Chinese children dance together.

Madhubala – The Biggest Star in the Worldby David Cort for Theatre Arts – August, 1952 – The actress, born Mumtaz Ataullah in Delhi in 1933, with the greatest following, in numbers and devotion, is not to be found in Hollywood, but on the opposite side of the planet — in Bombay, India.

Poster of 1951 film 'Badal', based on Robin Hood theme

Poster of 1951 film ‘Badal’, based on Robin Hood theme

‘Badal’ was quite successful. Most of the songs of the film also had done well. We will take up one of those for the records

Do Din Ke Liye Maheman Yahan – Badal (1951) – Lata Mangeshkar – Shanker Jaikishan

Two Timir Baran songs

We end our present episode with a posts/ articles that cover Mohammed Rafi, from a wide-ranging point of views –

When Dev Anand lent his voice to a Mohammad Rafi song –This is an article that was published on 4-12-2011 – ‘Hurray Hurray’ @0.08  in the song Pyar Mohabbat Ke Siwa Ye Zindagi Kya Zindagi,(Pyar Mohabbat1966Mohammed Rafi, Asha Bhosle – Shanker Jaikishan)is recorded in Dev Anand’s voice. According to some reports, Dev Anand had also lent his voice to another Rafi song from Kala Bazar (1960) – Sooraj Ki Jaise GolayiS D Burmanby adding ‘Om dhan hai namah’ and ‘Hari dhan hari dhan’ @4.52.

Philatelic Tribute to Great Legend – Mohd Rafi

Rafi 30001

An Open Letter to Rafi Demeanors – J.K. Bhagchandani – The post is a point-to-point rejoinder to the contention that Mohammed Rafi did not have natural pain in his voice for sad songs and he has to bring in sobbing effect to infuse the right impact. The author of the post strongly states that it is not only sad songs that he has provided us with different shades/ sub-genres but almost all genres of songs sung by him have that diversity factor

I look forward to receive your inputs for further enriching the contents of the posts…..

Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs – April, 2016

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Welcome to April, 2016 edition of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

We commenced the familiarizing ourselves with the changes in the Revision of ISO 9001 (:2015) with the December, 2015 episode of our blog carnival. Then, in the January 2016 episode, we took up Process Approach in the 2015 revision of the standard, as our first topic. In February, 2016, we had taken up first part of Risk-Based Thinking that primarily addressed the concept as has been taken up in ISO 9001: 2015, followed by Risk-Based Thinking, in the general perspective in March, 2016,

Now, in this month’s episode we will take a look at the subject that aims to align the organization’s QMS with the Context of the Organization.

Context of the Organization & ISO 9001:2015Kevin Gholston

According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary the word “context” has the following meaning:

context
noun con·text \ˈkän-ˌtekst\

The words that are used with a certain word or phrase and that help to explain its meaning; the situation in which something happens; the group of conditions that exist where and when something happens

Full Definition of CONTEXT

1:  the parts of a discourse that surround a word or passage and can throw light on its meaning
2:  the interrelated conditions in which something exists or occurs

Context-of-the-Organization-Overview

What is the Context of the Organization? – Itay Abuhav –

The context of the organization, in the ISO 9001:2015 is the set of functions, processes, inputs and outputs and limitations that creates the business environment of an organization. It is how business entities (functions or subsystems –intern or external) of an organization relate together and how the information travels through these elements.

The context of the organization is shaped through the integration of the business entities. The ISO 9001:2008 expresses it with the words” the relation and sequences between the main processes” (Chapter 4.1,b) and requires for example a diagram that describes those relations.

Context of the Organization

How to identify the context of the organization in ISO 9001:2015 – Strahinja Stojanovic

Context of the organization is a new requirement in ISO 9001, stating an organization must consider both the internal and external issues that can impact its strategic objectives and the planning of the QMS. It pretty much changes the concept and application of clause 4. Requirements regarding the context of the organization do sound a little bit vague, so what does this clause actually require?

Clause 4 of ISO 9001:2015, Context of the organization, requires the organization to evaluate itself and its context. This means that you need to define influences of various elements on the organization and how they reflect on the QMS, the company’s culture, objectives and goals, complexity of products, flow of processes and information, size of the organization, markets, customers, etc. It is also a means to detect risks and opportunities regarding the business context.

Where to start?

First, you need to determine which of the new requirements are already met in your existing documentation, because some of the requirements related to the Quality Manual in ISO 9001:2008 are now transferred into this new clause

To determine external context, you should consider issues arising from its social, technological, environmental, ethical, political, legal, and economic environment. Examples of external context may include:

  • government regulations and changes in the law
  • economic shifts in the organization’s market
  • the organization’s competition
  • events that may affect corporate image
  • changes in technology

Basically, all this information is in the heads of the CEO and other members of management, but it was never put on paper; the best way to gather it is by organizing some brainstorming. Systematization of all this information can be very valuable and demonstrate where you stand as an organization.

ISO 9001:2015 Revision Explained: ‘Context of the Organisation’ – by Alastair Atcheson

While there is no prescribed method of determining the context of the organisation in relation to the ISO 9001, a simple and pragmatic approach to understanding your organisation’s context consists of four steps:

  1. Identify the internal issues that can affect your organisation’s products, services, investments and interested parties.
  2. Identify the external issues that can affect your organisation’s products, services, investments and interested parties.
  3. Identify who are the interested parties and what are their requirements.
  4. Institute a system for regular review and monitoring of the internal issues, external issues and interested parties as identified above.

Internal issues can include the organization’s

  • regulatory requirements
  • strategies to achieve its policies and objectives
  • relationship with its staff and stakeholders, including partners and suppliers
  • resources and knowledge (e.g. capital, people, processes and technologies)
  • internal risk appetite
  • assets
  • product or service
  • Standards, guidelines and models adopted by the organisation
  • information systems

ISO 9001:2008 vs. ISO 9001:2015 – Context of the Organization By Itay Abuhav

With the ISO 9001:2008 it is necessary to evaluate whether the organization’s quality management system follows the general requirements. Wr.t. the ISO 9001:2015 and the requirements of  context of the organization – the organization shall analyze which issues (external as well as internal) that may affect its QMS or already have an effect.

Context-of-the-Organization - tongue in cheek view

Context of the Organization” and the Power of SWOT Analysis

ISO9001-2015_at__a_glance-CLAUSE4_SWOT

We will take up, “Interested Parties”, one of the vital considerations for understanding the ‘Context of the Organization’, in our May, 2016 episode.

We will now turn to our regular sections:

ASQ CEO, Bill Troy in his ASQ’s Influential Voice blog-column, has presented a roundtable discussion on the Voice of CustomerWhat exactly should voice of the customer mean to the quality professional? How important is it? What are the best ways to gather it?.  Luciana Paulise discusses some new tool to capture the voice of the customer. Pam Schodt considers the best way to gather VoC standards is through face-to-face meeting followed up by written and verified specifications. To Dr, Suresh Gettala, key is to hear from horse’s mouth and not to surmise about what the customer wants. Luigi Sille attaches equal importance to data gathering its use

We now watch the latest ASQ TV  episodes:

  • Metrics for Management – Tim Adams, Engineering Assurance Specialist, NASA, spent a few minutes with ASQ TV to talk about some of the main ideas of his 2015 ASQ World Conference on Quality and Improvement presentation. In this interview, Adams discusses some of the finer points of identifying and using metrics.
  • Benchmarking – Today, we’ll learn the basics of benchmarking, review the recommended six phases of a successful benchmarking process, and finally, we’ll get reacquainted with one vital ingredient in benchmarking: metrics.
  • The Torque Chain of Quality Large – For more information go to www.srtorque.com   Daily torque testing is becoming more common place because it makes good business sense. But is daily testing error proofing? No, and far from it. …. If your torque wrench is out of spec, using a torque wrench to prevent errors only leads to a false sense of security. What if the torque tester you are using is out of spec and you don’t know it?   This video and the subsequent series take you through every link in the chain of quality in order to help you understand all the places where the wheels can fall off. Specifically it takes a look at the places we tend to overlook or take for granted.

In Jim L. Smith’s Jim’s Gems for the month of March, 2016, we have –

Jim's Gems♦ Integrate DFSS with Existing Design Processes – Many organizations make a mistake when trying to replace their design process with Design for Six Sigma. DFSS was never intended to completely replace an organization’s existing design process.

I look forward to your active participation in enriching the blog carnival as we pursue our journey in exploring the happenings across quality management blogs…………

Note: The images depicted here above are through courtesy of respective websites, and have the copyrights for the respective images.

Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music – March 2016

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Welcome to March, 2016 edition of Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music.

Sahir Ludhianvi -  The People's Poet  - Akshay ManwaniOn the poet’s 95th birth anniversary, Akshay Manwani  has narrated an account of Sahir Ludhyanavi’s  seditious youth in ‘I have lit fires with songs of rebellion’: Memories of Sahir Ludhianvi’s college years…..

Read full interview of Akshay Manwani on his book Sahir Ludhianvi: The People’s Poet :-Harper Collins Publishers India, ISBN 978-93-5029-733-9, Rs 399, 320 pages

Madhulika Liddle also has penned Book Review: Akshay Manwani’s ‘Sahir Ludhianvi: The People’s Poet’

Antara Nanda Mondal , in her tribute to Sahir Ludhyanvi,  Jinhe Naaz Hai Hind Par Voh Kahaan Hain: Songs of Sahir notes that his first among the four songs he wrote for ‘Aazadi Ki Raah Par (1949) –  B S Nanji, Music : G D Kapoor –  was – Badal Rahi Hai Zindagi.

More to read on Sahir Ludhianvi:

Best duets of the not-so-unloved Mahendra Kapoor – Mahendra Kapoor would always be remembered not only for his duets with Lata Mangeshakar or for Ravi or O P Nayyar duets with Asha Bhosle, but also for duets, composed by relatively lesser known music directors, with several other  contemporary singers.  Of the songs remembered here, we have picked up:

‘Chalte Chalte Yunhi Koi Mil Gaya Thha’: The Music of Ghulam Mohammad is a special tribute to Ghulam Mohammad by Peeyush Sharma on his 48th death anniversary. Even though Ghulam Mohammad started giving music in films since early forties, his noteworthy compositions got their due from 1948 onwards. His music bore the fragrance of Rajasthan’s soil and touched new heights in Hindi film music. The article does full justice to Ghulam Mohammad’s work, beyond his all popular Shama or Mirza Ghalib or Pakeezah music.We would pick up a couple songs that find mention here, but do not have a video link:

Tonga in the Tinsel WorldGuest article by DP RanganHe recently debuted as a guest author with his piece on Bollywood’s love affair with horses. Here are  some of the songs that may  not be remembered well now:

  • Ek Nazar Ek AdaRaat Ke Rahi (1959) – Mohammad Rafi – Bipin Bapul – Vishwamitra Adil
  • Matwale Saajna – Faulad (1963) – Asha Bhosle- G S Kohli – Anjaan

Hum Ko Bhula Diya To Kya – Sudhir Kapoor remembers ‘Do Music Directors direct the music?’, an article that had appeared about 72 years ago in June 1943 issue of FILMINDIA magazine…..The sum and substance of the article is that the music directors, in most cases, have no control over what is to be sung, how it is to be sung, who is to sing and where the song is to be fitted in the screenplay….. The song which I am presenting is one of those songs which remind me of the tune of a popular song. The song is “Humko Bhula Diya To Kya, Yaad Meri Bhulaao To Jaanun” from the film ‘Chanda Ki Chandni’ (1948). Geeta Dutt sings the song on the words penned by DN Madhok. The song is composed by Gyan Dutt……This song reminds  of a popular KL Saigal song “Jeene Ke Dhang Sikhaaye Jaa” from the film ‘Parwaana’ (1947) (Music: Khurshid Anwar). Incidentally, this song was also written by DN Madhok.

Pradeep Kumar Songs from 1960 to 1963 – This is a follow on post to Some good Pradeep Kumar songs from the films released in 50s.Here are some of these:

“Dil Ko Lakh Sambhala Ji” – Shakila is a very vivid retrospective of Shakila a.k.a. Badshah Jehan.  Her songs are at SHAKILA HITS.

In Ten of my favourite “Man Sings and Woman Dances’ songs the singing man is not to dance along but physically must remain present in the picturization. That has ruled out  Tu Hai Mera Prem Devata or Jaa tose nahin boloon Kanhaiyya or Jhanan-jhanan baaje bichhua

Five Excellent Dances with Krishna Kumar – Krishna was in a dancing team with his brother Surya Kumar during the Vintage era, and they both also trained other dancers and worked as choreographers. Unfortunately, Krishna Kumar’s career came to an abrupt end sometime before the completion of the film Awara (1951), when he was murdered.

The Fascinating Tale of  So Many Anarkalis – The first screen adaptation was produced in the silent era. Two films were released in 1928, Loves of a Mughal Prince (Seeta Devi)and Anarkali (Sulochana). She appeared in two more Anarkali  films.  One was a 1935 talkie version of earlier silent one and in the second one , a 1953 version, She was Jodhabai and Bina Rai was Anarkali in this film. In 1955 telugu version, Anjali Devi plays Anarkali. The film was dubbed in Tamil as well. The 1958 version form Pakistan had Noor Jehan plyaing Anarkali.  ‘Jaltey Hain Arman. Perhaps best among all is K Asif’s 1960 version, Mughal-e-Azam . Apart from movies, the Salim-Anarkali saga has inspired theatrical performances, portions of song sequences and spoofs, including the Tamil film Illara Jyothi (1954), Chashme Buddoor (1981), Chameli Ki Shaadi (1986), Maan Gaye Mughal-e-Azam (2008) and most recently, Ready (2011). The affair between the prince and the courtesan may have been doomed, but their romance lives on.

How Chand Usmani Got Film Chance?  –  In this interview, Chand Usmani states that her favorite (Indian) stars are Nargis and Geetabali and Geeta Roy(Dutt) is not only her favorite playback singer, but a friend as well.

More Geeta Dutt  has remembered :

Raj Kapoor and Nargis on the sets of Aah(1953)

aah-sets-April 1953

Enter a caption

Raj Kapoor, and Director Raja Nawathe (seated on chair near window), together with other workers of the R.K. Unit, look on keenly while Nargis does a rehearsal for a sequence in Aah.

Shammi Kapoor’s Biography Makes for a Fascinating Read, is a review by Anirudha Bhattacharjee & Balaji Vittal, engineers by education and IT consultants by profession  ……overall, the book is a fascinating page-turner that can be consumed in one sitting. And unlike watching a Shammi Kapoor super hit which is a one-time watch masala film, it’s a book dense enough to be re-read, multiple times. And it has some lovely photographs too…

We end our present episode with an interesting post on Mohammad Rafi –

Mohammed Rafi - God’s Own Voice.pngRafi vs Talat vs Mukesh vs Kishore: the big rivalries of the Hindi film music world is excerpted (with permission from) Mohammed Rafi: God’s Own Voice by Dhirendra Jain and Raju Korti, (Niyogy Books_. For us, now, who played what games, and why, is certainly of no interest. It is those songs that have been mentioned that interest us, solely and wholly.

Nilay Majumadar, quite passionately states ‘that the most important effect of Rafi on me was it changed my way of listening to music. As the years passed, I understood the words more, their meaning, their correct pronunciation all became increasingly important. Above all poetry of the songs became significant….

I look forward to receive your inputs for further enriching the contents of the posts…..

Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs – March, 2016

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Welcome to March 2016 edition of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

We commenced the familiarizing ourselves with the changes in the Revision of ISO 9001 (:2015) with the December, 2015 episode of our blog carnival. Then, in the January 2016 episode, we took up Process Approach in the 2015 revision of the standard, as our first topic. In February, 2016, we had taken up first part of Risk-Based Thinking that primarily addressed the concept as has been taken up in ISO 9001: 2015.

Now, in this month’s episode we will look up as to how Risk-Based Thinking is looked upon in more general perspective.

Risk Management Process - ISO 31000

RIsk_Proability_Effect

                             Risk_Probability_Effect

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Managing Risks: A New Framework by  Robert S. Kaplan and Anette Mikes – presents a new categorization of risk that allows executives to tell which risks can be managed through a rules-based model and which require alternative approaches.

Category I Risks – Preventable Risks – arising from within – best managed through active prevention: monitoring operational processes and guiding people’s behaviors and decisions toward desired norms.

Category II: Strategy risks -A company voluntarily accepts some risk in order to generate superior returns from its strategy…A strategy with high expected returns generally requires the company to take on significant risks, and managing those risks is a key driver in capturing the potential gains.,, Strategy risks cannot be managed through a rules-based control model. Instead, you need a risk-management system designed to reduce the probability that the assumed risks actually materialize and to improve the company’s ability to manage or contain the risk events should they occur.

Category III: External risks – Some risks arise from events outside the company and are beyond its influence or control. Sources of these risks include natural and political disasters and major macroeconomic shifts. External risks require yet another approach. Because companies cannot prevent such events from occurring, their management must focus on identification (they tend to be obvious in hindsight) and mitigation of their impact.

The Changing Role of Risk Manager takes the sense of 10 senior risk experts across Europe to understand the role of risk manager and explore what skills and behaviours tomorrow’s generation of risk managers will need.

Risk Based Thinking Handbook – William A. Levinson has done an excellent job of explaining the role of waste (from the LEAN perspective) and how it can increase risk to organizations who fail to “see and think” that the many forms of waste are a source of operational risk to the organization. Among this book’s most important takeaways is that a risk or opportunity can hide in plain view unless our workforce knows how to identify it….Another of this book’s key missions is to equip the reader to “grok” ISO 9001 as a synergistic framework that helps an organization achieve its goals. “Grok” is originally from Robert A. Heinlein’s Stranger in a Strange Land, and it means to understand and internalize something completely.

What is Risk-Based Thinking?…. In order to successfully implement the concept of risk-based thinking, be sure to follow these tips:

  • Analyze risks and prioritize them.What risks are acceptable no matter the outcome, and what risks should be avoided?
  • Have plans for addressing risk.Can any risks be avoided and how? How can risks be minimized?
  • Check effectiveness.Once plans have been called into action, reassess the situation, several times of needed, to understand how effective it has been.
  • Learn from experience and push to improve.No matter the outcome of risk assessment and mitigation, use all the information possible for creating improvements.

How People Can Get Better At Risk-Based Thinking and Improve Their Organization’s RBM – Ben Locwin takes the process of buying lotteries, evaluating risk of use swimming pools by the toddlers and similar examples to emphasize the fact that most of us tend to take the past behaviour as an indicator of the future. That can be classified as a classic understatement.

Q9C Quality Consulting’s blog tag Risk Management has several more articles of interest on this subject.

We take a look at some video clips:

Risk Management 101: What is Risk Management?

Introduction to Risk Management

A New Look at Risk Management is an ASQ video.

Understanding ISO 9001:2015: Risk and Opportunities

This is the first year of implementing ISO 9001: 2015, Certainly, in the days to come, the concepts like Risk-Based Thinking will evolve and attain higher level of maturity, We, therefore, will continue to look at the developments over next couple of years.

We will now turn to our regular sections:

ASQ CEO, Bill Troy in his ASQ’s Influential Voice blog-column, has presented a roundtable discussion on Careers in Quality.

We now watch the latest ASQ TV  episodes:

  • Creating and Sustaining a Culture of Quality – In this episode we dig deeper into transforming the organizational culture into a culture of quality and a simple communications tool that can help create a culture of quality.
  • Quality and FDA – Quality plays an important role in industries regulated by government bodies like the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. A representative from the FDA talks to ASQ about this role, as well as an upcoming regulation that will affect consumers. The quality tool flowcharting is also explained and demonstrated.

In Jim L. Smith’s Jim’s Gems for the month of February, 2016, we have –

Jim's Gems

I look forward to your active participation in enriching the blog carnival as we pursue our journey in exploring the happenings across quality management blogs…………

More Than Bollywood: Studies in Indian Popular Music

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–Guest Article by  Tadatmya Vaishnav#

More Than Bollywood - Studies in Popular MusicI recently had opportunity to read through most of the book titled “More than Bollywood: Studies in Indian Popular Music “. It is a collection of essays on popular, film and non-film, Indian music. The book is edited by musicologists Gregory D. Booth and Bradley Shope. The essays are in a scholarly style and were meant to be a formal study of Indian film music as well as certain non-film music genres, such as pop, rap and rock.

‘More than Bollywood’ includes many of the leading scholars currently working on Indian popular music and culture. The volume offers a wide perspective on contemporary and historical popular music in India, and confronts the inescapable importance of the Indian film song; but it also offers the largest collection to date of research on “non-film” popular music in India. It can be treated as one of the most comprehensive single volume on a subject that is of growing interest to scholars and students in music, ethnomusicology, film studies, popular music studies, and South Asian studies. It is intended to stand on its own as a work of scholarship, but it is also simultaneously intended as a fundamental resource for courses on popular music and music in India.

All the chapters were not, in fact, interesting, as far as I am concerned. So, I take up the three chapters that I did find interesting.

Chapter 1 – A Moment of Historical Conjuncture in Mumbai

In this chapter, Gregory Booth presents an interesting case of how the Hindi film song, as we knew it until 1990 or so, was shaped substantially in the five year period of 1948-52, immediately after Independence. He treats the 1931 – 1947 period as a period of aesthetic and professional transition. Among major changes, he identifies growing sophistication in cinematography of song sequences and a change in the sound of the female voice in film songs. During this period, the film song also got to occupy the role of the most important form of popular song. He has taken a set of three representative music directors – Naushad Ali, Shanker Jaikishan and C Ramchandra- and two arrangers – Antonio Vaz and Sebastian D’Souza and only one full-time playback singer (Lata!) as having played a major complementary role in shaping the Hindi film song. Collectively, they effected sophistication of film song orchestration, explicit engagement with classical Indian and foreign popular music and redefinition of the sound of female playback singing, among others. Destiny seemed to have chosen them as ‘right person in the right place at right time.’

The musical and professional patterns that were established during 1948 and 1952 remained almost unchanged till at least until 1970. For a further 20 years, the rise of a new generation of musicians took over major roles. The shift in the basic structural composition of the film music is seen by examining the proportion of composers who composed more than one film in a year. Only a few, generally two or three, music directors dominated the year in terms of those soundtracks that were ‘most heard’. By 1952, the percentage of music directors with multiple releases had increased to 62%. For the next ten years this figure hovered around 50%, declining back to 30% in in 1967. The corresponding figure for 1932-1947 was seen in the range of 60%. Of the 60 highest net grossing films during 1947 to 1957, 32 % were during 1948-1952. Of these, Naushad, SJ and C Ramchandra had 68% share.

The rise of an oligarchy in the world of playback singers was also equally pronounced. Among male singers it was Mohammad Rafi who ruled the roost before Kishore Kumar took over in 1969. Nevertheless, the number of important male singers was greater as compared to that of female singers. In the case of female singers, the shift was far more dramatic and extreme. 1952 was the year that virtually brought an end to the richly textured and individually timbred voices of the earlier era. Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle and Geeta Dutt collectively recorded slightly over one-third of the songs recorded in 1951. With the fading away of Geeta Dutt, by end of 1950s, Lata Mangeshkar and Asha Bhosle shared between them more than one-third of all songs. Having given a quantitative background, the author has taken up the examination of more interactive musical, aesthetic and industrial practices in this chapter.

One may disagree, as I did, with some of the conclusions – that it was Naushad who “tightened” the concept of a ‘film song’, as distinct from ‘singing in the film’, by way instrumental interludes, tempo, orchestral size, recording techniques and professionalization of the singers. Or, that the style of the male voice in Hindi film songs followed mainly from Saigal’s style while the style of the female voice changed radically with Lata (I agree only with the latter part).

The statistics quoted at various places are useful and some of the points do note important conclusions. The last point about the technology that enabled separation of on-screen voice and playback voice and the emergence of the playback singer as a distinct role, is well-made and pivotal to Hindi film music.

Chapter 2 : Global Masala – Digital Identities and Aesthetic Trajectories in Post-Liberalization Indian Film Music is written by Natalie Sarrazin.

It is a very well-written account of how globalization, as well as new technologies, has influenced the creation of popular music, mainly film music, in India since the 1990s.

The author goes into a very detailed, second-by-second, analysis of the prelude music of the title song of Roja, in order to show how digital recording techniques can marry the audio to the video much more effectively than in the past.

Another good section is the one titled “Aesthetic Decisions”. It shows how the role of the music director has changed and how the sound engineer may be the most influential person behind the final finished song. This change may be revolutionary, but like many revolutions, the outcome may not be anything to be proud of. The author seems to take this major change in her stride, perhaps because she is a Westerner and does not have emotional ties to old music.

In her concluding remarks, the author notes that ‘Hindi film must project carefully crafted identities and desires onto the world stage, embodying Indian values in musical idioms palatable to an international music market and appealing to interesting non-Diaspora audiences. India’s active embrace of and enactment upon the promise of globalization require new Indian sonic agents, ones that portray India’s current energy, as well as image as a suitable global economic partner. Such music, to be successful, must create space for dreams and desires of Resident Indians and NRIs, while offering up musical fantasy escapism to the rest of the world.’

In Chapter 10: Latin American Music in Moving Pictures and Jazzy Cabarets in Mumbai, 1930-1950 Bradley Shope explores the period between mid-1930s and early 1950s when Latin American music in Hollywood films influenced jazzy cabarets that some of the Indian communities like Goans, Anglo – Indians and Parsis. The first half of the chapter traces the popularity of a native Brazilian dance, the Carioca – introduced to the world in the 1933 release Flying Down the Rio[i] in Mumbai and explores the relationship between this film and development of Hindi film songs containing Latin American sounds and images. The second half of the article uncovers the relationship between live cabarets in Mumbai and the development of Hindi films songs containing Latin American sounds and images.

The film Flying Down to Rio (1933) was successfully screened in urban India in 1934. The carioca dance shown in this films attracted vast audiences in Mumbai in nightclubs, restaurants, hotel ballrooms, social clubs and cabarets. Audiences learned the dance by watching the film or through lessons at local dance schools. By the 1940s, many jazz orchestras understood that learning Latin American repertoire could help secure jobs in a larger scope of avenues. It was no coincidence that when C Ramchandra composed Gore Gore O Banke Chhore (Lata Mangeshkar, Amirbai Karnataki, Samadhi, 1949),

he heavily borrowed from Chico Chico from Puerto Rico (Doll Face, 1945).

Latin characteristics were heard as early as in Naushad’s score for 1943 film Kanoon in the song Ek Tu Ho, Ek Main Hoon (Suraiya). The staged cabaret sequence Deewana Yeh Parwana from 1951 film Albela showcased great fusion of the chief arranger of ‘His Music Makers’, Chic Chocolate, and C Ramchandra. Chic Chocolate and his orchestra are dressed in stylized Latin American costumes in this song.

Carmen Miranda’s song sequence of ‘Week-End in Havana’ from 1941 film of the same name bears noticeable similarities to this song. And that includes not only the music, sounds or dance, but even Geeta Bali’s costumes as well.

One can find a similar beat of three+two clave (Dil Dhadake Nazar Sharamaye) or a music sound of rolling piano (Mere Dil Ki Ghadi Kare Tick Tick) in some other song sequences of ‘Albela’. Since the audiences of Hindi films were not typically exposed to these Latin American films or songs. That helped in creating that tantalizing element of fantasy in the Hindi film songs which brought up the entire effect far above real-life limitations of mundane restriction in the Indian society.

To be sure, other thematic, such as Hawaiian, Island, Spanish, Arab, French and the like, also suitably found way into Hindi films songs. Barring a few cases, the credit should also be given to director or music director that these adaptations were seen as highly innovative depictions that completely fused into the Indian cultural environment.

To illustrate each chapter author’s points, and to make available music not easily accessible in North America, the book is ably and vividly supported by Oxford web music companion website of audio and video tracks.

Bibliographic Information:

Print publication date: 2013 ǁ 380 pages ǁ Print ISBN-13: 9780199928835

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2014

Paperback edition: Published: 12 December 2013 | 384 Pages | ISBN: 9780199928859

Other books:

Behind the curtain: making music in Mumbai’s film studios – Gregory Booth

American Popular Music in Britain’s Raj – Bradley G Shope

# Tadatmya Vaishnav can be contacted @ tavaishnav@gmail.com

[i]

Super Economies: America and India – Where Do We Go From Here?

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In the first part, we looked at the preamble that Raghav Bahl builds for his case for India’s potential case in the coveted SuperEconomy club. In the second part, we then looked at the Raghav Bahl’s separate chapter-wise exploration of the past events of the international stage, wherein the involvement US, China and India, translated into the future case of ‘Shall it or shall it not ?’ for India’s Super Economy status. In the third and penultimate part, we looked at how Raghav Bahl views the points of common heritage, common systems of governance, a critical mass of Indian Americans and examines whether these two great parallels will ever, if at all, converge.

Raghav Bahl thus completes his panoramic analysis of the factors that brings India at the present critical junction of its future journey to the SuperEconomy status. In the concluding part, we join Raghav Bahl to see Where Do We Go From Here?

Super economies 4Geopolitics seemed to be the driving force in the 20th century. That dramatically underwent a change in 1989 with the fall of Berlin Wall. By the end of the century, Japan was failing to deliver on the great post-WWII promises expected of it.EU, established in 1993, was not ticking as economic powerhouse as was anticipated. The reforms undertook in China, as well as in India, had seemed to bring in a flurry of development, and hope.

9/11 attack, at the dawn of 21st Century, changed all that…Almost imperceptibly; the forces of globalization began to change the nature of geopolitical power, once primarily exercised through the State’s military might. The sphere of influence was getting increasingly leveraged by citizens, businesses and non-governmental agencies through economic, cultural and humanitarian channels.

While the SuperPower era was characterized by a cold war of estrangement and impassivity, The Age of SuperEconomies engenders a much ‘warmer’ kind of interaction during the moments of conflicts. In citizen-to-citizen interactions too, the Age of SuperEconomies is unrecognizable from those of SuperPower era.

It is this extraordinary level of integration that distinguishes the Age of SuperEconomies from the SuperPower era….And yet, today’s world mirrors the Superpower Era in one crucial way : The one-party states like Soviet Union or China have continued to flourish under rigid government controls.

What Europe was to 20th Century, Asia will be for the 21st Century : the core theatre of global commerce and conflicts, where aspirations and political ideologies collide. For the first time in 500 years, the bulk of global power resides not in Europe or America but in Asia.

Globalization has precluded of a ‘cold war’; countries are economically so interdependent that no trading partner can be ignored, isolated or quashed without wrecking the entire global order in one or more major ways.

Just as no one could envision the Age of SuperEconomies arising from the remnants of Cold War, we probably have no way of knowing how the geopolitical landscape will unfold going forward. Of all the possible developments that would transform the world by mid-21st Century, these five seem most likely to happen:

  1. The birth of NATO and NAFTA for Pacific will help stabilize Asia. The economic Integration among Asia’s democracies will counterbalance China’s hegemony.
  2. Robust growth of India, combined with America’s success in the recovery of its own economy will help the combined growth of the two economies dwarf that of China.
  3. China will reclaim Taiwan and strengthen its foothold in the South China Sea.
  4. America, China and India will unite to forestall Islamic terrorism.
  5. China will become ‘near-democracy’, thereby becoming a more open society.

Most of the considered reviews that were published when the book was released had, more or less, painted Raghav Bahl’s version of Indian Turtle vs. Chinese Hare race as the one painted by having put on Rose coloured glasses. But, like him, every one of us knows pretty well what is wrong with the way have been approaching our destined economic, and thereby social, pre-eminence. In more than the two years that the book was published, the economic and political landscapes in the three principal theatres of USA, China and India have scripted quite different, unexpected and certainly the unintended ways.

For India it is no more question of whether it will be able to size the opportunities available at this most interesting phase of its journey. The question that every Indian must ask and answer is what everyone should do to enable India leapfrog the economic growth and thereby, social and humanitarian challenges that will come up on this journey. India has to clearly identify forces that can help it to remain the game and sustain its staying power over the long haul. The plot that is being etched is quite tantalizing. But it is a once-in-a-lifetime, Do or Die situation for India. Every Indian should do every thing that he or she should to realize this, if not for themselves, if not for becoming a Super economy, at least for its generation that will come in the future.  That is the cross of responsibility that the present generation carries on its shoulders.

Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music – February, 2016

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Welcome to February, 2016 edition of Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music.

We take up the tributes first.

Suraiya - A personally autographed pictureSuraiya: The Last Singing Star of Indian Cinema – a tribute to her on her death anniversary on 31st January – By Parag Sankla“Almost eighty five years ago, God must have said “Today I am sending three great artists to this world. A natural actress, a beautiful lady and a melodious singer! Acting, beauty and singing. These are not three different persons, this is one girl! And here I present you Suraiya.”… Along with Kanan Devi and Noor Jehan, she was one of the most prominent female singing stars of the golden era of Hindi films….Her first two songs as a singer (“Aao aao hil mil kar khushiyan manayein” and “Rana ji ki jai jai se”) came for a film titled Taj Mahal (1941) composed by Madhavlal Damodar. This golden period of Suraiya’s career (1941 – 1946) is often ignored in many of the articles on her……I love the song “Suno more raja, nazariya milaaike” for composer Neenu Majmudar from “Main kya karoon” (1945).”…..From among other songs that have find mention in the article, we pick up Jab badal ghir ghir aayenge, kaho jee kit jaayenge – Daak Bangla. 1947 – Naresh Bhattacharya as a song that is we get to hear less.

Waheeda Rehman and Soumitra Chatterjee in Abhijan (1962)Waheeda Rehman: Quintessential Beauty with Intense Acting Prowess – By Antara Nanda Mondal – Impressed by her enigmatic screen persona and acting panache, Satyajit Ray picked her for the role of Gulabi in his celebrated Bengali film Abhijan (1962).

More about Waheeda Rehman :

Indurani, a star of the 1930s is a rich tribute on death anniversary of Ishrat Jehan Imamuddin aka Indurani on 18th February by film historian Arunkumar Deshmukh, enriched by photographs and posters by Harsh Raghuvanshi.

Ye Sama Ye Khushi Kuchh Bolo Ji Bolo Ji” – Azra – now known as “Farhana”, for the most part, acted in second heroine and character roles in around two dozen movies viz. ‘Junglee’, ‘Ganga Jamuna’, ‘Ganga Ki Lehrein’, ‘Ishara’, ‘Baharon Ke Sapne’, ‘Bandish’, ‘Wapas’, ‘Raja Saheb’, ‘Mahal’, ‘My Love’ and ‘Ilzam’ and finally bid adieu to Filmdom after she got married. In ‘Ganga Jamuna’, she was the second lead opposite Nasir Khan. Movies ‘Shaan-e-Khuda’ (1971) and ‘Pocketmar’ (1974) released after her marriage. ‘Shaan-e-Khuda’ was directed by her father Nanubhai Vakil.

Happy Brithday, Cuckoo! – Some readers of the blog Dances on the Footpath know about the incredible Cuckoo news and trivia post that have developed there. It started with so many comments to the 2011 Cuckoo birthday post (linked to below). And here are a couple of the Cuckoo birthday posts, both of which include a bunch of really good song clips. …. This blog contains a whole lot of Cuckoo…. 2011 Cuckoo Birthday Post ǁ   2014 Cuckoo Birthday Post

The Unlucky Genius Ghulam Mohammad’s best songs for Talat Mahmood – If you associate Anil Biswas, C Ramchandra, Madan Mohan and SD Burman for the best of Talat Mahmood, Ghulam Mohammad would rank at the equal footing with them.

The article is a tribute to the Unlucky Genius with his best songs for Talat Mahmood as a tribute to the singer, too, with velvet voice on his 92nd birth anniversary.

Here are some of the less heard songs:

Meri Yaad Mein Tum Na Aansoo Bahana: Remembering Talat Mahmood – Talat Mahmood was grand-uncle, naani’s (maternal grandmother’s) brother of Sahar Zaman. She reminisces her association with Talat Mahmood over the years in this article.

Talat Mahmood, the photogenic ghazal superstarManish Gaekwad notes that Talat Mahmood sang over 700 songs in his career, including a rare solo “Kadale Neelakadale” in the Malayalam film Dweepu for composer MS Baburaj. His last recording was “Mere Shareek-e-Safar”, a duet with Hemlata, for the film Vali-E-Azam (music by Chitragupta). Lyricist Ahmed Wasi writes, “Mere shareek-e-safar, ab tera Khuda hafiz” (My companion in this journey, I take your leave now). It turned out to be Mahmood’s swan song. He died on May 9, 1998, at the age of 74.

मण्टो का बम्बई” narrates the 21 minute docudrama directed by Dharmendra Nath Oza, which was first aired on TV on Sahara Samay on 3rd April, 2005. The documentary can be seen on Dharmendra Nath Oza’s YouTube Channel in six clips.

Nalini Jaywant – Down Memory Lane – is based on interview was conducted in 1960.

Remembering Nadira: The Diva Who Didn’t Want to be Rescued – Ranjib Mazumder – Remembers Nadira on her death anniversary – Two Jewish women stood out in the race among many prolific names starting from the early days of cinema. In the silent era, Ruby Myers was the most successful star known in film history as Sulochana, and in the post-independent Hindi cinema, Florence Ezekiel, better known as Nadira shone the brightest…..She was the anomaly in a society where women didn’t dare. The viewing public limited her career in a swift stroke of judgment in Shree 420, and in real life, men couldn’t gather the courage to handle an informed mind…..She craved companionship without having to be rescued, but we didn’t have enough imagination to understand that.

The Real and Reel Life of Pran, Bollywood’s Villain Extraordinaire – Ranjib Mazumder looks at some of the interesting aspects of the real and reel life of the villain extraordinaire who would have been 96….Here is one example …. “Pran was very close to Dilp Kumar and Raj Kapoor owing to their long association in the film industry……. When Dilip was getting married, Pran was shooting in Kashmir. Despite heavy rain, he managed to reach Bombay to attend his friend’s wedding. The entire gang including Raj Kapoor got drunk, banged on Dilip’s nuptial-night bedroom door relentlessly till he opened up to say hello to them.”

We now move over to the blog spots on other subjects.

Multiple Versions Songs (24): Songs having versions across different films – similar initial lyrics in mukhada – is a presentation of interesting variety of songs which have multiple versions across different films. In some cases these may be a traditional bandish, where you may find some versions outside films.

One can come across widely differing versions on the circumstances that led to the actual performance of Aye Mere Vatan Ke Logo. Subhash K Jha presents one more – India’s most patriotic song: How Lata Mangeshkar almost turned down ‘Ae mere watan ke logon’ .

Shankar-Jaikishan’s dance songs for Lata Mangeshkar – SoY now picks up one music director around him one set of posts remain anchored during the year. 2014 was the year of Anil Biswas, 2015 was that of Naushad with C Ramachndra in tandem with. S D Burman was organically covered concurrently. Now, 2016 has been dedicated to Shanker Jaikishan, with a limit of the year 1959 for the selection of the songs.

My Favourites: ‘Me Tarzan, You Jane’ Songs creates a list with ‘I am…, you are…’ motif.

Here are a few songs that typically represent the theme while not being heard often enough.

Ten of my favourite romantic duets – of pure, outright romance…Nothing to adulterate the headiness of being in love, of being confident, too, that one’s love is returned.

Ten of my favourite ‘Jaa’ songs – begin with ‘jaa’ (and being strict about this; no variations, like jaaiye or jaao). What or who is being sent away differs, but the crux of the matter remains: go. Go away. This post sprang out of an earlier post on ‘Aaja’ songs….Some interesting coincidences…Jaa tose nahin boloon Kanhaiyya (Parivaar, 1956) has, interestingly, another song in another film begins with exactly the same words: in Samrat Chandragupta, a song picturized on Nirupa Roy and Bharat Bhushan begins Jaa tose nahin boloon…..Jaa Jaa re chanda jaa re from Private Secretary (1964), is created by music director, Dilip Dholakia He has another jaa song from the same film, fabulously rendered by Manna Dey – Ja Re Beiman Tujhe Dekh Liya Jaa.. Another song, nearly decade earlier, which is similar to that of the Lata song from Private Secretary is Ja jaa re chanda teri chandani jalaye from Albeli (1955) – music director – Ravi.

Sadanand Kamath also recites similar interesting coincidence in Kaliyon mein Raam mera kiranon mein Raam hai –-It was a surprise to know just a few days back that Amirbai Karnataki, the Kannada Kokila as she was known in Karnataka, had faced a situation when she was required to lip sync in Sudha Malhotra’s voice for the song ‘Kahaan nahi Ram hai’ from the film PAWAN PUTRA HANUMAN (1957). The song is written by Saraswati Kumar Deepak and is set to music by Chitragupta. Apart from Amirbai Karnataki, the other actor in the role of Hanuman is S N Tripathi. Incidentally, Chitragupta assisted S N Tripathi before he got independent assignment as music director in 1946. Here is the song that provides the title to the post: Kaliyon mein Raam mera kiranon mein Raam hai – Pawan Putra Hanuman – Geeta Dutt .

‘Gata Rahe Mera Dil was Patchwork’: In Conversation With Vijay Anandnever-before-published interview of Vijay Anand – in conversation with Peeyush Sharma we have some interesting aspects of S D Burman’s music. “No one could dictate Burman Dada about which song must be sung by which singer. He had his own style of testing and selecting the voice. Once he would conceptualize a song and decide on the singer for the particular song, no one could influence that decision. He would go to the final limit of even scrapping the song altogether. He would then create a new song but he would not change his decision on the singer. He had the courage of his conviction. He knew which song would best suit a singer. And that decision would be the best decision and the song of course, would be a hit….There was no singer of his calibre in the entire film industry. The kind of highly complex ‘murkiyan’ (tonal embellishments) or ‘gayaki’ (rendering style) he would come up with was simply out of this world. But when he would sing the same tune for Lata or Rafi or Kishore or Asha, he would make it simpler than before.

More to read :

We end our present episode with some (interesting) posts on Mohammad Rafi

I look forward to receive your inputs for further enriching the contents of the posts…..

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