Manna Dey, a.k.a. Prabodh Chandra Dey, (1 May 1919 – 24 October 2013)’s classical training and ‘too clear, open’ voice seemed to not only over-qualify him to be a popular singer, but even type cast him for religious or patriotic or songs that were meant to present the joy of nature. However, use of the versatility of his voice was successfully utilized by Shankar Jaikishan in songs of different moods, like Dil Ka Haal Sune Bhai Dilwala or Pyar Hua Ikarar Hua or Mud Mud Ke Na Dekh in Shree 420 (1955). Then came the roaring success of songs of pure romance – Aa Ja Sanam Madhur Chandani Mein Hum, Ye Raat Bhigi Bhigi and JahaN Main Jaati HuN WahiN Chale Aate Ho (Chori Chori, 1956). This led to a surge in the demand for his voice as the number of songs went up to a peak of 95 in 1957 from the 56 songs in 1956. But these numbers still seemed to be not adequate to place him in the league of THE male playback for lead actor.
Our present series Chale Ja Rahen Hai is our tribute to Manna Dey to refresh the universal appeal of his voice by specifically choosing the so-called less popular, less-heard songs. Till now, we have covered Manna Dey’s less popular, less-heard songs for the years –
Even if we do not focus on evergreen songs like Kaun Aaya Mere Man Ke Dware (Dekh Kabira Roya – Lyrics: Rajendra Krishna – Music: Madan Mohan), we will certainly need several episodes to cover the rest of the songs for the year 1957.
We commence our journey on that note….
O Mister O Mister Suno Ek Baat Badi Bewafa Hai Ye MardoN Ki Jaat, Badalte Hai Rang Pal Mein Hazar Kare Inke VadoN Pe Kya Eitbar, Ye Karne Ko To Karle Ha Bhi Swikar Par Ek Hi Nazar Mein Hai Kiska Eitbar – Agra Road – with Geeta Dutt and chorus – Lyrics: Prem Dhawan – Music: Roshan
Even as Roshan chose Mohammad Rafi as male voice for the maiden appearance of Vijay Anand in lead role, choice of Manna Dey for this waltz-based dance song is also a noteworthy enough experiment.
Tum Ko Pukarti Hai Pratap Ki Kahaniya ….. Kya Unchai Insaan Ki – Amar Singh Rathod – Lyrics: Bharat Vyas – Music: Sanmukh Babu
The song indeed is a background song with patriotic appeal but has a subtle blend of pathos as well.
Phir Wahi Dard Hai Phir Wahi Jigar, Phir Wahi Raat Hai Phir Wahi Hai Dar – Apradhi Kaun – Lyrics: Majrooh Sultanpuri – Music: Salil Chowdhury
The comedy genre song has been blended with the mood of drunkenness.
Hai Pyar Ke Do Matwale …. Ek Hum Aur Ek Tum – – Apradhi Kaun – with Geet Dutt – Lyrics: Majrooh Sultanpuri – Music: Salil Chowdhury
The comedians too did get to sing a romantic song in the films in those days. The way Manna Dey plays differently every time with Ek Hum Aur Tum amply validates the natural flexibility of his singing prowess.
Ek Bade Baap Ki Beti Ko Kal Ghar Ke Munshi Sang, Arre, Dekha Ghul Mil Batiya Karte Aur Jamate Rang – Bandi – Lyrics: Rajendra Krishna – Music: Hemant Kumar
Manna Dey comes into his elements as he renders the tongue-in-cheek town gossip in a folk styled street theater mood style song.
Ma Teri Mamta Kitni Pyari Kitna Pyar Jatati Hai – Bansari Baala – Pandit Phani – Kamal Mitra
Manna Dey adds softness that mother’s love evokes in the child as he sings the devotional mood song for the Mother.
Hai Bahut Dino Ki Baat Tha Ek Majnu Aur Ek Laila – Bhaabhi – with S Balbir and Mohammad Rafi – Rajendra Krishna – Chitragupta
The “classically trained”, “Bengali” Manna Dey so easily teams up with thorough Punjabi voice of Balbir and ‘versatile’ Mohammad Rafi to render a Punjabi folk tale .
Duniya Teri Tu Duniya Ka Yun Daali Mein Paat, Tera Mera Janam Janam Ka Saath – Bhakta Dhruv – with Geeta Dutt – Pandit Madhur – Avinash Vyas
In a purely mythological environment, Manna Dey creates soft mood romance with Geeta Dutt.
Din Albele Pyar Ka Mausam Chanchal Man Mein Toofan, Aise Mein Kar Lo Pyar – Begunah – with Lata Mangeshkar – Hasrat Jaipuri – Shankar Jaikishan
Riding on the thriving success of Chori Chori songs, Shankar Jaikishan have easily chosen Manna Dey for the present romantic duet. However, such were the ways of Hindi Film Music world that when Mukesh wanted to comeback form his disastrous detour of the acting route, friendship with likes of Shankar Jaikishan did create special songs for him. As such, the wheel of Fortune has also placed Mukesh in direct competition in the form of Ae Pyaase Dil BejubaaN.
Tum Mere Swami Antaryami Maat Pita Tum Mere – Chhote Baabu – With Usha Mangeshkar – P L Santoshi – Madan Mohan
To open the article on Enoch Daniels is dilemma of choosing between presenting first the musician or his instrument.
Accordion has its presence registered in almost all genre of music such as Rock n Roll, Jazz, Pop etc. The great accordionists like Gudi Sirwai, Sumit Mitra, Kersi Lord, Dheeraj Dhanak, K. Bharat, Enoch Daniels, Sammy Reuben, Suraj Sathe and the like greatly contributed to the wide-spread use of (piano) accordion in the songs, title music, background scores or anywhere music had to play a role in of Hindi film music in ‘50s and 60s. Because of its so universal appeal, it seems better to talk about accordion first.
Accordion is a free-reed portable musical instrument, consisting of a treble casing with external piano-style keys or buttons and a bass casing (usually with buttons) attached to opposite side of a hand-operated bellows. Over the time, accordion have developed into several types like Button Accordion, Unisonoric and Bisonoric Accordion, Concertina, Bandoneon, Piano Accordion etc. Out of all these, Piano Accordion became popular in Hindi films music, perhaps because of its close musical proximity with harmonium. However, it overcomes the limitation of harmonium with a piano style keyboard to play with few sound-registers (called couplers) that could change the pitch of sound as per requirement.
In the following clip we can listen to Sumit Mitra playing piano accordion to different range of octaves.
More musical details about accordion can be accessed @ Part 1 of Saaz Tarang episodes.
+ + +
16th April (1933) being the birthday of one of living legendary accordionist, Enoch Daniels, we dedicate our present episode to his contribution to the Hindi film music.
Enoch Daniels was born to a musically inclined family in Pune. He was one among the six brothers. The British missionary culture of then Pune drew each son of the family to the choir music. Young Enoch was drawn to organ first and then to piano. The seven eight years of such practice made Enoch quite proficient with these instruments. By the time he was adolescent, he was quite known in Pune music circles and had started getting invitations to play at various local programs.
Aside: The singular prowess with which Enoch Daniels could play these instruments can be ratified by the following song wherein he has played the piano.
BTW, he could recall this song when someone reminded him of the song in one of the interviews,
Tum Apna Ranj-o-Gam Mujhe De Do – Shagoon (1964) – Jagjit Kaur – Lyrics: Sahir Ludhianvi – Music: Khayyam
By the time, Enoch Daniels had entered college, he started feeling the constraint of limitation of portability of both organ and piano. So, he decided to learn an instrument that was portable. It so happened that he was selected to participate in youth festival event at Delhi. His friend offered him a baby accordion. Enoch started practicing so vigorously on that accordion that he went to on win prizes at the national event along with vast goodwill of accolades. He was just 20 then.
This was the time he was inclined to choose armed forces as a full-time career. During his studies at Wadia College, Pune for first three years, whatever Enoch Daniels had learnt over playing the piano, he sincerely practiced applying it to accordion. Around that time, he got opportunity to buy a full-sized accordion of his own from a European missionary returning to his motherland. That sparked his desire to go professional. So, he shifted to Bhavan’s College, Bombay for the last year of graduation. Here, he got ample opportunities to participate in various cultural events.
The uncle of the friend who had offered him a baby accordion for that youth festival happened to be a film distributor. So impressed he was by Enoch’s talent that he introduced the young 22-year old Enoch to S D Burman. Enoch grabbed that opportunity with both hands and never looked back.
Jalate Hai Jiske Liye – Sujata (1959) – Talat Mahmood – Lyrics: Majrooh Sultanpuri – Music: S D Burman
The song opens with a soft lower octave intro on piano accordion @ 0.06 to 0.12. Th seamless fusion of accordion notes with guitar @ 0.14 -.015 and @0.37- 0.38 subtly adds to the soft rendition by Talat Mahmood. Then @ 1.43-1.44 and @ 2.40 -2.41 a very brief stroke of accordion blends with countermelody instruments flute and violin.
At that stage, Enoch Daniels met another famous musician, the Hawaiian guitar player Van Shipley (to be covered in more details later in the series), which was to blossom into a lifelong professional and personal bond between the two..
At the age of 23, Enoch Daniels joined Van Shipley on a concert tour to East Africa. Enoch Daniels was also assigned the role of music arrangements at this and all other such trips with Talat Mahmood, Mohammad Rafi, Manna Dey over next few years. Enoch Daniels also had accompanied and arranged Lata Mangeshkar show at famous Royal Albert Hall, London.
In mid-50s, instrumental versions of popular Hindi film songs were the in thing. Radio Ceylon regularly used to air one program of such versions. So it was no surprise that in no time Columbia records company contracted Enoch Daniels for cutting records of popular Hindi films songs on piano accordion. Later on HMV also cut several records with Enoch Daniels.
Fortunately, many of these records have reached internet, which gives us an opportunity to listen many of Enoch Daniel’s accordion versions. Here are a few representative ones –
Yun HasaratoN Ke Daag(instrumental)
Bachpan Ki Mohabbat Ko (instrumental)
Yaad Kiya Dil Ne KahaN Ho Tum (instrumental)
Ek Din Bik Jaayega (instrumental)
Enoch Daniels’s magical command over accordion and piano, coupled with his ability to read and write staff notations made him widely popular with music directors like C Ramchandra, Naushad, O P Nayyar, Madan Mohan, Vasant Desai, Kalyanji Anandji, R D Burman . Laxmikant Pyarelal.
Bequarar Kar Ke Hamein Yun Na Jaaiye – Bees Saal Baad (1960) Hemant Kumar – Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni – Music Hemant Kumar
Accordion play of Enoch Daniel can be heard @ 0.44 to 1.02 and 2.31-2.39 as well several countermelody strikes like the ones @ 1.26-1.27, 2.22-2.23 etc. or at the outro from 3.19 to 3.26.
Ye Mulaqat Ek Bahanna Hai – Khandaan (1979) – Lat Mangeshkar – Lyrics: Naqsh Lyallpuri – Music: Khayyam
Here too, the song opens with intro with accordion in the lead. When accordion comes back @1.56 to 1.59, it plays in bass scale. And then, it supports counter melody @ 2.07 to 2.09. But a short burst in higher octave @3.37 to 3.39 is just a master stroke.
Since one of the most profuse and creative users of accordion, Shankar Jaikishan, normally used to work with other accordionist like Gudi Seerwai or Sumit Mitra, Enoch Daniels got associated with Shankar Jaikishan much later, in the film Love In Tokyo,1966.
Le Gai Dil Gudiya Japan Ki – Love in Tokyo (1966) – Mohammad Rafi – Lyrics: Hasrat Jaipuri – Music: Shankar Jaikishan
The song opens with a short chord note of accordion. Short notes of accordion, like ones @ 0.37, 0.41 etc. innovatively supports countermelody vibrato orchestration. Similarly, accordion also blends with other instruments in the interludes too.
Since 1963 Enoch Daniels has also worked as an arranger for background and film scores. Among his noteworthy films are Kabhie Kabhie, Trishul, Chhotisi Baat, Pinjara and the entire re-recording in stereo of the classic V. Shantaram film, Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje.
Enoch has also written music for several documentaries, commercials, and solo album releases by artistes such as Talat Mahmood (“Film Gems of Talat Mahmood: Melody the queen – Talat the prince”), Preeti Sagar (Nursery Rhymes), and Shaguftagi – Fragrance Of Poetry & Melody with poetry by Kaifi Azmi, and arrangement of melodies by Khayyam.
Quite constructively busy with playing the instruments as well music arrangements, Enoch Daniels does not seem to have taken interest in composing the full music for a film, with just one exception, a Konkani film, Suzanne (1983). Being a regional film, the score by Enoch Daniels did not get much attention in the mainstream cinema circles. But the songs do have an undeniable Enoch stamp. Here are three songs:
Ajab Hai Zindagi Ajab Hai Ye Safar – Suzzanne (1983) – Bhupinder – Lyrics: Bharat Vyas – Music: Enoch Daniels
Suzana … Rasbhari Madbahri Ek Pari Sab ki Jaani Pahchani– Suzzanne (1983) – Yesudas – Lyrics: Bharat Vyas – Music: Enoch Daniels
When electronic instruments started dominating the mode of music arrangements in films, Enoch Daniels withdrew from the industry and retired to Pune. But that has still not kept him away from his piano accordion. He keeps plays in public performances with youthful vigour.
At Swar Manjari, Jabalpur, Enoch Daniels tunes in with Kishor Desai (on mandolin) to relive their original association for Aage bhi jaane na tu – Waqt (1965) .
At Gunjan Lalyi Kala programme at Bilimora (Gujarat) in 2009, Enoch Daniels teams upwith Shyam Raj (Tenor sax) to play Shola jo bhadke (Albela, 1951).
We wish Enoch Daniels many more very healthy and musically fulfilling years as he enters 9th decade with a selfie that Piyushji has captured when he visited Enoch Daniels in 2017 at Pune latter’s residence.
Credits and Disclaimers:
The song links have been embedded from the YouTube only for the listening pleasure of music lovers. This blog claims no copyright over these songs, which vests with the respective copyright holders.
The photographs are taken from the internet, duly recognising the full copyrights for the same to the either original creator or the site where they were originally displayed.
Hasrat Jaipuri – Beyond Shankar Jaikishan: 1961 _ Part 1
Hasrat Jaipuri (born Iqbal Hussain) – B: 15 April 1922 – D: 17 September 1999 – was a natural poet. Even after settling into the role of a demand-driven world of film lyrics, he was and remained thereafter too, a poet at his core. Even as he was known to freely use Urdu words in his film lyrics, his lyrics retained a simple character. He remained a highly respectable of poet in Urdu literature world.
An interesting aspect of his personality was his innate commercial insight, quite unlike someone who is a poet. He used to very carefully invest the surplus from his Hind film earnings into real estate properties that would yield him, and his family, a comfortable secondary stream of income.
Though his body of work remains his partnership with Shailendra for penning lyrics to more than 190 Shankar Jaikishan films, his work with other music directors also remains as varied noteworthy. In 2017, we have commenced the annual series of Hasrat Jaipuri’s songs with Music Directors Other Than SJ. Till now, we have covered –
Presently, we will refresh our memories of Hasrat Jaipuri’s songs with Music Directors Other Than SJ for the year 1961. We will take up Hasrat Jaipuri’s songs for Husnlal Bhagat Ram, S N Tripathi and Iqbal Qureshi.
Har Dam Tumhi Se Pyaar Kiye Jaa Rahi HuN – Apsara (1961) – Talat Mahmood, Asha Bhosle
Here is a song that can be said to belong to the last phase of Husnlal Bhagatram and full glory height of Hasrat Jaipuri. Once we listen to the song we feel sorry for ourselves as to how could such a song get buried deep down in memory!
S N Tripathi
Jadoo Nagri (1961)
S N Tripathi could enjoy such a long career even when the Hind film world had consigned him to B / C grade films, goes on to validate that he was not only a highly multi-talented artist, but also equally a highly tenacious person, too. Hasrat Jaipuri too has wholehearted penned lyrics under his baton, fully retaining all his signature styles without holding back anything
Aankhein Meri Jadoo Nagari, Rup Rangila Jadu gar …. Wahi Dekhe Pyar Ke Sapne Dal Du Jispe Ek Najar – Lata Mangeshkar
S N Tripathi has blended a faint resemblance with Mid-east music – in the opening lines – while fully composing the song in a fast-paced dance sequence.
Loot Liya Re …. Gori Gori Chandni Ka Khoi Khoi Kamini Ka Mithi Mithi Ragini Se Lut Liya – Asha Bhosle
S N Tripathi’s highly imaginatively composed song plays on a gorgeous dream-sequence type set.
Jadoo Bhare Tore Nain Kateele Ham Par Jhulam Karein – Mahendra Kapoor, Asha Bhosle
S N Tripathi has so deftly presented the dance song as a duet song
Nigahon Mein Tum Ho … Khayalo Mein Tum Ho . . .. Jidhar Dekhati HuN Najhar Aa Rahe Ho – Lata Mangeshkar
Hasrat Jaipuri deplys his trademark Sakhi as opening lines of the song
Kaise Videshi Se Naina … Ek Pall Bhi Aaye Na Chain Re – Lata Mangeshkar
Hasrat Jaipuri was also known to waeave in odd lyrics so well into his song composition.
Dekho Aayi Basant Bahar …. Ke Jiya Mora Tum Ko Pukare Hai O Sajna – Lata Mangeshkar
Hasrat Jaipuri was also known to use very simple lyrics to express quite deep emotions.
Umar Qaid had experimental star cast – Sudhir and Nazim in the lead, Helen having more meaningful role that her usual one-off dance song roles. Each character had at least one song that had hit the counters at box office of the music company loudly ringing sweet sound of huge popularity for example, Mujhe Raat Din Ye Khayal Hai (Mukesh) for Sudhir, O Piya Jaane Na ….. Meri Aankon Ki Need Uda Ja Na (Asha Bhosle) for Nazima. But film failed singularly, leaving a black dot against the name of music director, Iqbal Qureshi.
Suno Ji Ek Baat Tum Hamara Dil Hua Hai Gum – Mukesh, Suman Kalyanpur
Roothana Manana has been a very convenient method for expressing / accepting the love in Hindi films. Normally the songs are films at gardens or during picinicsetc. But here, the love birds have to be content with the terrace of the hme for their
Dil Vahan Jahan Ho Tum Aao Na KahaN Ho Tum – Asha Bhosle
Even though Helen has been in a major role in the film, the club song also follows her.
Kaisi Bekhudi Ka Samna Ho …. Dekho Apne Dil Ko Thamana Ho – Asha Bhosle
It seems if the actress would have been other than Helen, the song may have been in set in some other setting, because the basic theme of the song is acceptance of love.
Shama Jo Jalti Hai Parwane Aa Hi Jate Hai Hum Apni Aag Mein Khud Ko Jalaye Jaate Hai …. Dil Ka Fasana Koi Na Jaan Apni Khushi Mein Jhoome Jamana – Mahendra Kapoor, Asha Bhosle
Opening with a Hasrat Jaipuri’s signature style ‘saakhi, the qawwali was well received on radio on those days. However, when we see the video clip now, the Mohan Choti ‘comedy’ pranks mar the joy of the song to a great extent.
Bambai Puarani Kalkatta Purana .. Jaisi Meri Naanji Waise Mere Naana – Mohammad Rafi, Kamal Barot
If Mohan Choti pranks are discounted, the street song remains quite enjoyable with very light lyrics by Hasrat Jaipuri maintain the mood of the song.
We still have a few more films of 1961 wherein we have Hasrat Jaipuri’s songs for music directors other than Shankar-Jaikishan. We will take these songs in the next episode… next year …..
We will continue remembering Unforgettable Songs that seem to Fading away from our Memories every second Sunday of the month ……..
Disclaimer: All images are sourced from net and videos from You Tube. All copyrights of the respective image/ video clip remain with the original owner of the image.
Ghulam Mohammed (1903 – 17 March 1968) was trained as dholak player, but on the strength of his natural insight for rhythm ensured he was equally comfortable and proficient with folk percussion instruments like duff or matka. More he also had advantage of accompanying his father to various music programs. That helped him to extend his reach to melody as well. The initial years of struggle after he came down to Bombay in 1924 also worked as blessing in guise, in that his natural talents got honed to a level of professional excellence. The cruel realities of politics of Hindi film world or the fickleness of destiny could prevent in getting Ghulam Mohammed the success commensurate with his talents but has not been able to obliterate Ghulam Mohammed’s creations in the 37 films for which he scored music as independent music director.
It to refresh our memories of multi-talented music director Ghulam Mohammed that we commenced the present series in the month of death of Ghulam Mohammed’s songs with special focus on the playback singers he chose to fructify his creations in the month of his passing away to the heavenly abode. Till now we have covered Ghulam Mohammed’s songs for the year
Presently, we will listen to the relatively less heard songs of six films – Dil-e-Naadan, Gauhar, Jazar Raatein, Laila Majnu, Naina and Rail Ka Dibba – for which Ghulam Mohammed composed music in the year 1953.
While recognizing the talent of Jagjit Kaur, Ghulam Mohammed has so creatively used her voice for this happy song.
Ghulam Mohammed has so effectively further used Jagjit Kaur’s voice in sad song, Khamosh Jindagi Ko Ek Afazana Mil Gaya, that the song instantly got a place of honor in Jagjit Kaur’s all-time greats
Sudha Malhotra – Na Wo Humare, Na Dil Humara, Kahin Bhi Apna NahiN Thikana – Dil-e-Naadan (1953) – Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni
Ghulam Mohammed extends his experiment to use voice of Sudha Malhotra for this solo wherein he has a slow-paced mukhada as well as first lines of Antaras to create that specialeffect of pathos.
Asha Bhosle – Lijo Baabul Hamara Salam Re, Ham To Jaate Hai Saajan Ke Gaam Re – Dil-e-Naadan (1953) – Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni
The daughter is trying to assuage the helpness of father. Ghulam Mohammed has chosen the folk tune of a vidaai (bride farewell) to convey the message. He has chosen the then less known voice of Asha Bhosle for this poignant song.
Talat Mahmood – Ye Raat Suhani Raaat Nahi, Aye Chand Sitaro So Jao – Dil-e-Naadan (1953) – Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni
Not having seen the film I do not why Talat Mahmood (the hero on the screen) is so disturbed on his first wedding night, but Ghulam Mohammed has effectively used his soft voice at a higher scale to express the mood.
Ghulam Mohammed has used a novel way of the singers swinging the lyrics of mukhada to express the bubbling moods of the love birds.
Shamshad Begum – Saavan Mein Yaad Teri Aaye Jab Piya, Ho Dekho Ji Kali Ghata Baras Baras Jaye – Gauhar (1953) – Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni
The pouring rains from the dark clouds of Saavan is a favorite metaphor for poets to express the feelings of the separation of the two birds. Ghulam Mohammed has fallen back on the veteran Shamshad Begum to enliven the pain.
Sudha Malhotra, Shamshad Begum – SaiyaN Tore PaiNYa PaduN Aa Jaa Re, Mere Man Ki Aag Bujha Ja Re – Gauhar (1953) – Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni
Two friends and their friends voice their youthful longings for falling into love with someone of their choice. The song is set to a folk tune.
Mohammad Rafi – Zara Sambhal Ke Beta Jamura Tu Naach Main ChheduN Tamura – Hazaar Raatein (1953) – Shakeel Badayuni
The song is essentially the traditional folk tune used by the street conjurer who moves along with his red-faced monkeys and performs on the street.
Shamshad Begum, Mohammad Rafi – Raja Ji, Raja Ji Tum Meri Kahani Kya Jaano, Main Hun Kya, Tum Bhala Dil Ki Baatein Puraani Kya Jaano – Hazaar Raatein (1953) – Shakeel Badayuni
Ghulam Mohammed uses a folk tune, retaining dholak as rhythm instrument and harmonium in the orchestra, smoothly weaving in violin ensemble to give the song modern touch. He also moves away from the set pattern of antara singing by using Rafi to sing the lines in a very noel manner.
Mohammad Rafi – Milne Ki Hasrat Mein Betabi Ke Saath, Rah Gaye Faila Ke Haye Dono Haath, Ful Do Din Hans Ke Ji Bahla Gaye Aur Ye Gam Se Bin Khile Murjha Gaye – Laila Majnu (1953)– Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni
In this background song, we get to hear Mohammad Rafi in deep tone set to a mildly higher scale, fully expressing the feelings of flying sands gradually covering up the bodies of Qaish and Laila.
Asides: Laila Majnu had two more songs of Mohammad Rafi, as also songs by Asha Bhosle and Shamshad Begum as well. However, in order to cover all these songs we may have to dedicate separate episodes to the cases of such films.
Mohammad Rafi, Khan Mastana – Bulbul Mein Nai Nagame Tere Gul mein Teri Bu Hai, Har Saye Mein Tera Nur Hai Har Chijh Mein Tu Hai – Laila Majnu (1953)– Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni
Medicants are sinigng a qawalli-styled song, probably as a prayer which so intimately reminds Qaish of his love Laila
Mohammad Rafi, Talat Mahmood – Bhar De Jholi Allah Naam Bhar De Jholi Allah Naam, Sabhi Ki Khair Mayi Baba Ki Khair Tere Banenge Sab Bigade Kaam – Laila Majnu (1953)– Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni
The song initially depicts medicants seeking alms from Laila. Qaish also seems to have joined the group, When his turn comes up, the song goes into Talat Mahmood’s solo voice and Qaish uses the opportunity to seek a peek of Laila in the alms.
Naina (1953) had two music directors – Ghulam Mohammed composing three songs and Manna Dey four of total seven songs.
Meena Kapoor – BarbadiyoN Ne Hosh Se Begana Kar Diya, Ab AaNsuoN Ko Dard Ka Afsana Kar Diya – Naina (1953) – Lyrics: Anjum
On th efface of it the song is atypical love-torn heroine’s expression of poignancy. But, Ghulam Mohammed has experimented with voice Meena Kapoor while laying the first line of mukhada and each anatara to aver slow rhythm, thereby transforming the song into a very effective expression of pain of the torn-up love.
Geeta Dutt – Dil Unko De Diya Haye, Dil Ka Amailk Jaan Ke – Naina (1953) – Lyrics: Anjum
When it came to accepting the love, Ghulam Mohammed has switched over to the voice of Geet Dutt.
1953 had three films of Shammi Kapoor – Thokar, Laila Majnu and Rail Ka Dibba. Each one had fared poorly at the box office, ranking 21st, 22nd and 19th respectively in terms of the collections. As a result, all the good work that Ghualm Mohammed had done in composing the songs for the two later films also was swept along in the wave of the ebb of box-office failure.
Shamshad Begum – Chham Chhamaachham Paayal Baaje, Naache Mora Man Ho Naache Mora Man, Chandaa Se Gawaahi Le Le Tu Mere Saajan Ho – Rail Ka Dibba (1953) – Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni
On a stand alone evaluation Shamshad Begum is at her usual gay mood in the song. But, the perplexing part is why should Ghulam Mohammed have chosen Shamshad Begum as playback to petit Madhubala in the year 1953!
Mohammad Rafi, Gandhari – Dunia Jawan Hai Dil Meharban Hai, Aise Mein Sanam Mil Jaaye Sanam Meri Qasam – Rail Ka Dibba (1953) – Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni
The song has all the mandatory strapping of a street song – harmonium taking the lead in the orchestration, Kakoo dancing with gay abandon.
Shamshad Begum, Mohammad Rafi – La De Mohe Baalma Aasmani ChudiyaN Ji Aasmani ChudiyaN – Rail Ka Dibba (1953) – Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni
Ghulam Mohammed has so deftly transformed the mood the traditional folk tune to enliven the playful mood of the two love birds.
Even a very keen follower of film music would it find it very difficult to list the music arrangers and instrument players beyond a few, more by luck than design, handpicked popular names. When radio was the major source of listening to the film songs, one possible reason that music arrangers and instrument players hardly got any mention when the song was played was that for each song such a list would probably take more time than possibly the actual paying time of song, typically recorded on one side of a 78-RPM shellac record. By the time FM radio listening generation came in, this genre of supporting music was confined to pre-programmed database of ‘digitally generated’ sounds of digital or electronic instruments. So, when the music director himself was becoming more of an assembler, it would be only surprising if any other support sources would have got some mention.
However, the film music in general, and keen followers like us in particular, are indeed very fortunate that at every stage of evolution of the film music, there always were some music lovers who always scraped up bits and pieces of some valuable information regarding many known and even more unknown artists associated with different elements of making of a song.
It is to the credit of such pains of those followers that we have some very interesting, and key, pieces of information of two epochal songs – Aayega aanewala … (Mahal, 1949; Lata Mangeshkar; Lyrics: Nakshab Jarachvi; Music: Khemchand Prakash) and Tere bina aag ye chandani …..Ghar aaya mera pardesi (Aawara, 1951; Lata Mangeshkar, Manna Dey and Chorus; Lyrics: Shailendra; Music: Shankar Jaikishan).
In order not to digress from our main subject for the day, we will sidestep good deal of information, like these songs started the future trends like haunting melody or a dream sequence or that if one song went on to launch Lata Mangeshkar into higher orbits, the other song laid foundation for many non-traditional styles of song composition or song recording or even the rhythm and orchestrion arrangements.
However, let us put on our headphones and listen to the preludes of both songs –
Aayega Ayega Aanewala – The prelude- or rather intro – running up to 3.42 is basically composed of short opening lines (Saakhi – साखी), interspersed with short pieces of violin,) is supported by soft counter melody accompaniment of piano.
Tere Bina Aag Ye Chandani – Listen to the solo violin pieces at 1.26 to 1.35 and then from 1.36 to 1.39.
Many keen listeners would have noticed these nuances of orchestration of the two songs. However, hardly a few would perhaps know that the piano in Aayega aanewala or the second violin piece of just three seconds in Tere bina ye are played by the same player whom we know as Anthony Gonsalves – one of the pioneering music arrangers of Hind Film Music of Golden Era.
During the first stage rehearsal Raj Kapoor did not appreciate the above solo violin pieces in the prelude of Tere bina aag ye chandani and passed some disparaging remark, The two violin players immediately walked out of the recording room. However Shankar and the music arranger Sonny Catalino knew the true worth of these violinists – Peter Dorado and Anthony Gonsalves. They somehow pacified these two players and managed to bring them back to the recording. And as it is said, the rest is history.
Anthony Gonsalves – born on 12 June 1927, at Majorda in South Goa – had started imbibing the sense of music from the very childhood from his father Jose Gonsalves, who had his own band and was the choir master at the Church, and the other family members who regularly participated as part of the choir at the Church. Anthony Gonsalves’s father also used to teach music to village boys. By the age of six, Anthony had started assisting his father in these music lessons. When Anthony was sixteen, he managed to escape to Bombay, much against his father’s wish.
At Bombay, Anthony Gonsalves got exposure to Indian classical music. He would play violin with leading bands in the day and attend music classes to learn playing raags, sargam, harmony and such elements on traditional instruments of Indian classical music. He also took up learning reading and writing Devnagari script. In the due course, he developed the writing of the Indian classical music in staff notations and harmonize them with western music pieces.
In the ‘30s, during the period of greats like R C Boral or Pankaj Mallik, music directors would explain the tune to all instrumentalists and the instrumentalists would convert these instructions into playing their respective instruments. Then came a period when the strong influence of North Indian and Punjabi music traditions pervaded the film song compositions. The songs were pleasing to listen to, but beyond a limit, there was not much scope for experimentation in terms of rhythms or tunes or selection of instruments and the orchestration. Young Anthony Gonsalves joined the world of Hindi film music of Bombay.
Anthony Gonsalves started weaving the harmonic pieces of Western music styles into the traditional Indian music style compositions of music directors like Ghulam Haider, Shyam Sundar, Naushad etc. This dramatically altered the entire character of music composition culture of Indian films. It can be safely stated that this established the practice of music arrangement that was to be followed by the music arrangers for next fifty years.
Anthony Gonsalves also introduced the chord chart system and integrated different instrument pieces in the entire structure of the system. With his knowledge of Indian classic music structure of prelude, mukhda (sthayi), interludes, antaras, cadences, post-ludes or fade-outs that was to shape the solid foundation of Golden Era of Hindi Film Music.
While working for different bands in those days, Anthony Gonsalves was noticed by Naushad. Naushad used violin playing expertise of Anthony Gonsalves for the songs that he was composing for his film Sharda (1942). Anthony Gonsalves assisted Naushad and his official assistants Mohamad Ebrahim or Ghulam Mohammad in orchestration of the songs of films like Anmol Ghadi (1946), Dillagi (1949), Dastan (1950), Baiju Bawra (1952), Mother India (1957) etc.
Tara Ri Aara Ri… Ye Saawan Rut Aur Tum Aur Hum – Dastaan (1950) – Mohammad Rafi, Suraiya – Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni – Music: Naushad
In this totally un-Naushadian touch composition, we can clearly feel that it was Anthony Gonsalves was given the full charge of rhythm as well as orchestration, song being set to waltz dance rhythm with violin, guitar, accordion prelude with extensive use of soft counter melody support with a choir style humming as icing on the cake.
The intrinsic insights of knowing western and Indian music and his practice of writing staff notations for all types on instruments soon was to make Anthony Gonsalves gain popularity in the Hindi film music circle.
Soon, Anil Biswas invited Anthony Gonsalves to join his team of music for Bombay Talkies. Anthony Gonsalves actively assisted Anil Biswas for Jwar Bhata (1944) and Pehli Nazar (1945). Here are a few songs of those years wherein Anthony Gonsalves has played the violin –
Sawan Ke BadaloN Unse Jaa Kaho – Rattan (1944) – Zohrabai Ambalewali, Karan Diwan – Lyrics: D N Madhok – Music: Naushad
Dil Mera Toda O Mujhe KahiNkaa Na Chhoda Tere Pyar Ne – Majboor (1948) – Lata Mangeshkar – Lyrics: Nazim Panipati – Music: Ghulam Haider
In was around the same time that another veteran music director Khemchand Prakash also invited Anthony Gonsalves to assist him in the composition of music for Mahal, released quite belatedly in 1949.
It was with Dholak (1951, Music: Shyam Sundar) that Anthony Gonsalves opened his almost a two-decade illustrious career as independent music arranger of jaw-opening figure of over 1,000 songs.
Mausam Aaya Hai Rangeen, Baji Hai KahiN Surili Bin – Dholak (1951) – Sulochana Kadam, Satish Batra, Chorus – Lyrics: Aziz Kashmiri – Music: Shyam Sundar
The song opens with typical beats of dholak of Punjabi folk songs – a trademark rhythm style adapted by Punjabi Music directors of that period. The introduction of accordion strains @0.21, trumpets @ 0.32 joined further clarinets @ 0.42 transforms the song radically. Anthony Gonsalves also has quite smoothly introduced harmony too from 1.02 to 1.22 in the form of voices of Satish Batra and chorus.
Let us listen to one more smash-hit song from the same film to further appreciate how western style of orchestration of Anthony Gonsalves and Punjabi dholak rhythm are seamlessly integrate –
Hulla Gulla Laaiala .. Ho Kullam Khulla .. Gaye Jaa– Dholak (1951) – Mohammad Rafi, Satish Batra, Shamshad Begum, Chorus – Lyrics: Aziz Kashmiri – Music: Shyam Sundar
The vast range of instruments that have been in the orchestration of prelude and interludes also visible in the song.
Anthony Gonsalves long association with S D Burman, right from early films like Shikaar (1946), has given us many evergreen songs.
Saiyaan Dil Mein Aana Re – Bahaar (1951) – Shamshad Begum – Lyrics: Rajendra Krishna – Music; S D Burman
Anthony Gonsalves has played major role in the orchestration of the song. However, the solo piece of violin from 0.34 to 0.40 shows that magical touch that Anthony Gonsalves could infuse by his unique style of playing the violin.
Even as Anthony Gonsalves got closely working with the front-line music directors, he went to collaborate with same dedication with other highly talented but not so appreciated music directors like Pt. Govindram (Aabroo and Sahaara 1943), Gyan Dutt (Dilruba, 1950; Gul-e-Bakawali,1956), Hansraj Behl (Rat Ki Rani, 1949; Rajdhani, 1956; Sikandar-e-Azam, 1965) or N Dutta (Milap, 1956; Ham Panchhi Ek Daal Ke, 1957; Jaal Saaz, 1959) to name a few.
Ham Se Bhi Karlo Kahin Kabhi Kabhi Do Meethi Meethi Baatein – Milap (1956) – Geeta Dutt – Lyrics: Sahir Ludhianvi – Music: N Datta
Here is one more fine illustration of so smooth blending Indian and Western styles.
Here are two songs that we have always associated as the creations of the respective music directors. However, searching for finer details of Anthony Gonsalves has added to the enrichment to the beauty of the song that an arranger / musician creates by his / her contribution.
Sham-e-gam Ki Qasam Aaj Gamgin Hai Ham – Footpath (1953) – Talat Mahmood – Lyrics: Sardar Jafri – Music: Khayyam
How imaginatively Anthony Gonsalves has matched the imagination of of he composer while selecting each instrument so thoughtfully and arranging each one of it so much delicate touch.
Right from the first stroke of piano in the prelude, Anthony Gonsalves has so effectively weaved violins with sound of piano in addition to one of the finest countermelody accompaniments that adds to the pathos of the song!
The list can ultimately land up putting in each of his arrangements, so I stop here with heavy heart, leaving many uncharted waters like Ashok Rane’s 58-minute documentary ‘Anthony Gonsalves – The Music Legend’.
With his practice of providing detailed notations not only musicians were very happy because they exactly knew what was expected of them and with what emphasis when, Anthony Gonsalves also very popular among sound recordists because he made it a point to provide these notations to them as well, enabling thereby to fine tune the recording touches as the final take would take-off.
Anthony Gonsalves’s penchant for blending the Western and Indian systems of music led to creations like Sonatina Indiana, Concerto in Raag Sarang, Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in Todi Taat. He also went to establish, and fund, in 1958, a group of around 110 musicians with Lata Mangeshkar and Manna Dey as soloists, Indian Symphony Orchestra, specifically to perform his creations.
These experiments did not succeed as much as Anthony Gonsalves had expected. The infamous episode of Anthony Gonsalves being refused to arrange music for an animation film for (the then) Films Division, by the then I&B minister B V Keskar, whoparochially would not entrust such job to a Christian, also did not help Anthony Gonsalves to keep his self-motivation to continue to experiment!
However, Anthony Gonsalves’s efforts in the field of fusion of Western and Indian music did spread his reputation across the seas. Years later, in 1965, when Howard Boatwright, the then dean of the school of music at Syracuse University, was visiting India, he had a chance meeting with Anthony Gonsalves, that followed in an invitation to work at the university. Anthony Gonsalves readily accepted the invitation. He worked for around two years there and then worked in Hollywood for creating the educational films. Even though not much of authentic information is available on his experiences during America, it is generally believed that Anthony Gonsalves so much remained disheartened at the heart that when he chose to come back to India, he remained so much incognito that even his very close friends or associates at Bollywood had any idea the Anthony Gonsalves is back to India. He chose to settle down at his place of birth and continue to teach music to the children of the area.
That passion for teaching the music, perhaps inherited from his father, had not died down even during his busy career at Bollywood. It is said that his apartment at Sushila Sadan at Juhu-Bandra linking road, Mumbai, was always open to the students of music. Two of his the then students were Rahul Dev Burman and Pyarelal Sharma (of Laxmikant-Pyarelal music duo). Pyarelal, who went onto become an ace violinist and accomplished arranger, has paid his tribute to his Guru by convincing Manmohan Desai to change the name of character being played by Amitabh Bachchan for Amar Akbar Anthony from Anthony Fernandes to Anthony Gonsalves, and even coined the opening line of a song My name is Anthony Gonsalves. And perhaps as the fitting touch of the magic of Anthony Gonsalves’s immortal contribution, the song – otherwise not a very exceptional composition – went on become a roaring success!
An artist who was ‘far ahead of his times’, Anthony Gonsalves breathed his last on 18th January 2012, away from the fame and dazzle of the world of music he loved so intimately and passionately!
Credits and Disclaimers:
The song links have been embedded from the YouTube only for the listening pleasure of music lovers. This blog claims no copyright over these songs, which vests with the respective copyright holders.
The photographs are taken from the internet, duly recognising the full copyrights for the same to the either original creator or the site where they were originally displayed.
As has been repeatedly noted in My Best Solo Male Singers, or Female Singers or Duets, my own choices are basically too inadequate to enable help form any basis for selecting My Top Music Director for the year 1943.
The beacon image @ the Overview post, shows four films – Kismet (Music: Anil Biswas), Tansen (Khemchand Prakash), Ram Rajya (Shankar Rao Vyas) and Wapas (Music: R C Boral). The point table of Best Songs of music directors @ @ Best songs of 1943: Wrap Up 4 also reflects this image.
Of these four, songs of Wapas has all the flair of vintage songs. In all possibilities, these songs must have immediately been lapped up by the then fans of music of that era. However, being too closely molded on the style of vintage era, the songs have not been able to transcend its footprint the subsequent Golden Era.
So is the case with Ram Rajya.
Tansen has five solo songs by the evergreen K L Saigal as well as one duet with Khursheed. Khursheed also has three solo songs. That itself gives Tansen a head start. The film itself may not appeal a typical Golden Era films follower like me, but the orchestration of the songs by Khemchand Prakash ensures that the songs remain equally appealing as the songs of later years of 1940s- the transition years from vintage to golden era.
Even if we discount the fervent following that Ab Himalay Ki Choti Se can bring up now, other songs have undeniable impact on the Golden Era followers even if the singers are prominently vintage era singers. Undoubtedly, the credit should vest Anil Biswas fro his path breaking music composition style.
So even as SoY adjudges Khemchand Prakash as The Music Director for the year 1943, on the basis of four to two advantage in the point table of Best Songs of music directors @ @ Best songs of 1943: Wrap Up 4, I would rather choose to remain neutral between Khemchand Prakash and Anil Biswas as My Top Music Directors for the year 1943.
Talat Mahmood (24 February 1924 – 9 May 1998) as a singer, and actor, shone to his brightest during ‘50s, even as his career in Hindi (film) songs spanned 1945 to 1981. ‘50s was also happened to be the decade of Elvis Presley in America and Cliff Richard in UK. All these three singing stars were not only handsome, good-looking, always dressed in utmost care but their voice had very distinct magnetic charm.
Of over 750 Hindi songs of Talat Mahmood, his duets with all major female singers of his times presents Talat Mahmood in many different shades. Therefore, we have undertaken a series of his (rare) duets to commemorate the memory of Talat Mahmood in the month of his birth. Till now, we have explored –
We now turn to Talat Mahmood’s duets with Asha Bhosle.
Interestingly, Talat Mahmood and Asha Bhosle’s career followed different trajectories even when seemingly running concurrently. For Talat Mahmood, the decade of 50s was his golden period but for Asha Bhosle it was the period of her struggle to establish her own independent existence when Lata Mangeshkar’s stars were in full ascendence. The case of decade of 60s then saw swing of fortunes, with Asha Bhosle having come out of shadow of Lata Mangeshkar, it was Talat Mahmood who was losing the momentum rapidly.. Then technically, Talat Mahmood’s career , in terms of Hindi film songs, during ‘70s was already on the gasping stage of the last run.
In spite of these odds, Talat Mahmood and Asha Bhosle duets stand second to Talat-Lata duets in numbers, with period of 1951 to 1959 recording around 59 duets! However, during this period, the then first -row music directors who preferred Talat Mahmood used to prefer to work with Lata Mangeshkar. As a result, barring a few exceptions, the Talat Mahmood – Asha Bhosle duets are scored by the music directors who worked, so called, fringe of the HFM spectrum of that period. An interesting fall out of this situation is that we get to listen to a very wide range of voices of both the singers.
Presently, we will take up Talat Mahmood – Asha Bhosle duets for the years 1951 (2 duets), 1952 (1 duet) and 1953 (6 duets).
Mera Man Jhoom Jhoom Laharaye – Titli (a.k.a. For Ladies Only) (1951) –Manohar Singh Saharai – Vinod
There could not have been a more opportune opening of the account of Talat- Asha duets than this duet, composed by one of the bright but most unfortunate composer, Vinod.
Music director and bot the singers quite successfully enliven the playful mood of the song
Tum Bade Wo Ho Mohabbat Ka Maza Kya Jano – Imaan (1951) (Unreleased) – Hasrat Jaipuri – Motiram
The lyrics of the song easily convey the mood of ecstasy of being together. Talat Mahmood seems to sound a little less playful than Asha Bhosle, but overall the song, remains very pleasing to listen to.
Pyar Bhi Aata Hai Gussa Bhi Aata Hai, Tum Hi Kaho Aise Koi Chood Ke Kisi Ko Jaata Hai – Goonj (1952) – D N Madhok – Sardul Kwatra
Sardul Kwatra was another music director who had very distinct knack of blending folk tunes into his compositions, and yet his success with Hind songs remained on a rather limited scale.
Talat Mahmood is also quite playful in the delivery of the song, but, unfortunately, the duet is said to have not been released.
Kisi Ne Nazar Jab Se Mila D, Meri Zingadi … Jhoom Ke Muskara Di – Humsafar (1953) – Sahir Ludhianvi – Ali Akbar Khan
The song very effectively succeeds in conveying the mesmerized state of being together.
Talat Mahmood, interestingly, sounds to be so near to his NFS singing scale.
It would be opportune to note here that all other male songs of the film are by Kishore Kumar and female songs by either Lata Mangeshkar or Geeta Dutt.
Even though S D Burman had some excellent scores with Talat Mahmood in his own initial phase, he tended to prefer Mohammad Rafi, or Kishore Kumar, by the time his own career was on the rise. Similarly, he tended to prefer Lata Mangeshkar, except during the period when relations between S DB and Lata Remained strained. As a result, we have only one duet of Talat Mahmood- Asha Bhosle from S D Burman.
Chahe Kitana Mujhe Tum Buloege Nahin Bolungi … Bol Na Bol Aye Jaanewale Sun To Le Aye Diwano Ki – Armaan (1953) – Sahir Ludhianvi – S D Burman
‘Baabla’ and ‘Aramaan’ (1953) form the base of 18-films-at-a-strecth successful partnership of Sahir Ludhianvi and SD Burman.
The present duet epitomizes the deep pain of separation of two love birds. Asha Bhosle also so naturally matches Talat Mahmood in creating the mood of pathos.
The song has a solo version by Talat Mahmood, too.
Teri Marzi Hai JahaN Mujhe Le Chal Tu WahaN – Ghar Baar (1953) – Indeevar – Vasant Prabhu
A very well well-known exponent of Marathi Bhav Geet genre, Vasant Prabhu, has just one hind film to his credit!
The song opens with Asha Bhosle singing to a dance tune, but Talat Mahmood remaining in the pensive mood. However, as the song moves ahead, it is all the way dance-like mood.
BaharoN Ki Duniya Pukare Aa Ja …. Tere Minzir Hai Sitare Aa Ja – Laila Majnu (1953) – Shakeel Badayuni – Saradar Malik
The timeless melody belongs to the period when Shammi Kapoor was following the beaten track of serious roles with Talat Mahmood as his playback.
Dekh Li Ae Teri Maherbani Dekh Li – Laila Majnu (1953) – Shakeel Badayuni – Saradar Malik
Asha Bhosle once again comes up with a wonderful rendering of the total pathos mood of the song
Raat Chandani Saath Tumahara Rang Muhabbat Layi, Kabhi Najhar Me Tum Laharayein Kabhi Najgar Laharayi – Pehli Shaadi (1953) – Kaif Irfani – Robin Banerjee
Being together in the soft glow of moonlight is always an occasion that two young love birds to keenly keep desiring!
While searching for the Talat Mahmood – Asha Bhosle duets, I accidently landed up on a Punjabi duet of theirs. The song is composed by Dhaniram, of whom we will talk in more details when we take up Dhaniram’s another Talat – Asha duet for Dak Babu (1954). For the present recalling just one song – Main HuN Bahart Ki Ek Naar Ladane Marane Ko Jo Taiyar (Ladki, 1953) – should suffice to introduce Dhaniram’s contribution to Hindi Film Songs.
Mere Dil Di Sej Diye Raniye Ni – Laar Lappa (1953) – Punjabi – M S Sehrai – Dhaniram
Dhaniram was a classically trained music director who also very easily could blend folk tune of Uttar Pardesh and Punjab into his compositions.
The present song is just one fitting illustration of that side of his music caliber.
We will continue with Talat Mahmood – Asha Bhosle duets in our episode next year as well.
We will continue remembering Unforgettable Songs that seem to Fading away from our Memories every second Sunday of the month ……..
Disclaimer: All images are sourced from net and videos from You Tube. All copyrights of the respective image/ video clip remain with the original owner of the image.
A school of knowledgeable people believe that the music came into being when an infinitely dense singularity exploded with a Big Bang to bring our universe into existence. That explosion is our primal sound. The spread of that sound on a wave of radiation brought rhythm into existence. Thus, the two basic elements of music – the note (melody) and the beat (rhythm) – also can be believed to have come into existence simultaneously with the universe coming into being. The blowing of winds, explosions of volcanoes, the thunders of clouds and the strong winds of tornadoes that kept happening throughout the chain of events on the earth brought in them vast range of sounds, The waves of oceans, flowing waters of streams, winds blowing through the woods, the chime of rain drops falling on the leaves blended variety to the diversity of sound.
Then, at some stage of evolution, human beings started recreating this ‘music’ of the nature into the languages that human beings understood. The process has been evolving over the path of millions of years of human evolution and shall continue as long as humans exists.
One of the paths that led to the development of a form is what we now know as film music. In the Indian context, along with the advent of ‘talky’ films, in the third decade of twentieth century, the songs also came into being in the films. That indeed was the dawn of a new era. By 1935, the playback singing also came onto field. The film music gradually, but surely, came out of the shadow of theater style music. New crop of music directors and singers entered the arena. Also came in the then modern recording technology as well.
In consonance with rule of market economy- more the decent returns, more will be the competent players in the market – the virtuous cycle of pull for different forces of the film music started gaining momentum. As such, between the period of second half of ‘40s to ’60s, many outstanding music directors, music arrangers, musicians, sound recordists, lyricists and singers emerged on the stage. As they kept getting favourable circumstances, they boldly tried new experiments that showcased the breadth and depth of their creative competency spectrum.
At this stage, we do have to recognise that an average listener of any form of the music hardly has inclination for the technicalities like raags or scale or rhythm. As such, it should be no surprise if they do not notice the subtleties of different music instruments or the variations in singing styles. For him, what pleases to the ears or what can be easily hummed is a good music. It was this effect that drew that average lay listener to the film music. Along with actor enacting a song on the screen, he could now recognize the singer and perhaps the music director. Some discerning listeners also started giving recognition to the lyricist. It may not be overstatement to note that film music played a very strong, even if unconscious, role in cultivating some rudimentary appreciation of the music per se at the mass appeal level.
But, alas, very critical link in the entire chain of a film song composition, that of music arrangers like Frank Fernand, Antonio Xavier Vaz (a.k.a. Chic Chocolate), Sebastian D’Souza, Anthony Gonsalves, and musicians ranging from ace accordionists Gudi Saravai and Sumit Mitra to classical flutists Pannal Ghosh and Hariprasad Chaurasia.and many other such legendary instrumentalists still remained unrecognised in terms of their contribution to the film music. Even this list would be grossly incomplete if we do not mention names of instrumentalists / arrangers like Dattaram, Basu-Manohari, Sonik-Omi, Babla, Uattam Sigh and the likes who ventured into the field of independent music direction but could not make, so called, successful headway.
To buttress the point of intention, a few examples will better serve the purpose:
Who has played that master piece of saxophone just after the line Bhul Koi Na Jo Hamse Ho Jaaye in the famous song Roop Tera Mastana of Aradhana (1969)?
Have you noticed the pain of loneliness in Tu Chhupi Hai Kahan (Navrang, 1958) being so effectively being accentuated by the Shehnai pitching in the music?
The role of music arranger was to shape the basic idea of the tune that.the music director has composed for the lyrics penned by the lyricist into a full-fledged song. It is the arranger who selects the correct rhythm and corresponding appropriate percussion instrument as well as the other melody music of prelude or interludes or countermelody support and the corresponding instrument(s). Each piece will be designed in detail, which instrument will play exactly when, in what scale and what style, who will play what etc. These details were all codified by the arranger and meticulously explained to each instrumentalist. Then, there would rehearsals to iron out the kinks as well as the need to tune in the different orchestra elements as one unit. Next, the rehearsal would be held with singer, usually, prior to the recording sessions. And when all was set to a level of acceptable standard, the final recording would take place.
Without taking away the due credit to music director for imagining such notes, the lyricist giving it a concrete body and the singer making it come alive, it is the arranger and the instrumentalist concerned who are the unsung cornerstones for that imagination to fructify into the reality of a glorious structure of art that we call a song.
With this prelude, we gear up to commence our present series of The Sculptors of Hindi Film Music, that would introduce us to some of the leading music arrangers and instrumentalists who played great role in shaping the music of the golden era of the Hindi film music.
+ + + +
As is most timely apt, we commence the series with Sebastian D’Souza (29 January 1906 – 9 March 1998), a successful Goan music arranger in the Bollywood music industry, who is largely credited with changing the entire harmonic structure of the Hindi film song to create an extremely listenable full body of sound behind the voice of the singer
Sebastian D’Souza spent his childhood and adolescence in his native Goa. His natural passion and inborn knack for the musical instruments were nourished in the tradition of Church music there. He easily went on to learn violin, cello and piano. While learning to play these instruments, he also learnt the writing of notations. It was during this time that he very attentively used to listen to the famous symphonies of well-known composers of the western world.
At the risk of a little digression, since we would be focusing more on orchestral arrangement of musical instruments in the present series, a word about the violin family of string instruments would be in order.
Quite easily recognised ‘violin’ comes in four different sizes. The violin, which is the smallest, viola, cello, and the biggest, the double bass, sometimes called the contrabass. (Bass is pronounced “base,” as in “baseball.”) The smaller instruments, the violin and viola, make higher-pitched sounds, while the larger cello and double bass produce low rich sounds.
After partition in 1947, Sebastian D’Souza decided to settle in Bombay and pursue his career as violinist in the film industry. Here he would play violin for many of the then stalwarts like Anil Biswas, Ghulam Haider, Sajjad Hussain, Vinod, Husnlal Bhagatram etc. In 1948-49, when O P Nayyar got his first assignment to compose a solo for CH Atma (Preetam Aan Milo), he assigned its music arrangement to Sebastian D’Souza. When O P Nayyar got his first film – Aasmaan (1952) – he again entrusted Sebastian D’Souza the responsibility of full-fledged music arrangement. O P Nayyar – Sebastian association prospered very well and continued till 1973. Their last film together was Pran Jaye Par Vachan Na Jaye.
Incidentally, the Filmfare awarded song of the film, Chain Se Humko Kabhi Aapne Jeene Na Diya, was recorded just before Asha Bhosle – O P Nayyar parted ways.
For our present purpose, listen to the effective the soft instrumental notes accompanying the song as counter melody has been in enhancing the pathos of the song!
In 1952, Sebastian D’Souza’s Sonny Castelino, a Shankar Jaikishan team regular, introduced Sebastian to the SJ duo. Daag (1952) marked the beginning of another unstinted long association in the film industry. Sebastian went on to arrange music for each of SJ film, till 1974, ending the run with Sanyasi., all songs of the film set to raag Bhairavi. As someone trained in western classical music, Sebastian faced the challenge of learning Indian classical raag structure, since both Shankar and Jaikishan markedly preferred their songs to be based on Indian Classical music.
Another major work of Sebastian was with Salil Chowdhury. Salil Chowdhury is well known to recycle his Bengali songs into Hindi films. Here is one illustration wherein the value addition that a music arranger fully entwined with style of the music director can make:
Dhitang Dhitang Bole – Awaz (1956) – Hemant Kumar, Lata Mangeshkar, an unknown singer and chorus – Lyrics: Prem Dhawan – Music Salil Chowdhury | Bengali version – Singer: Hemant Kumar – Music” Salil Chowdhury
The creative use of counter melody, harmony and chorus in the music arrangement seems to make so obvious a difference between the two versions, composed by the same music director. The music arrangement of the Hindi version is by Sebastian D’Souza.
Before we take up some representative songs for a closer view, let us look at some typical songs exemplify the benchmark that Sebastian has set for the role of an ideal music arranger.
Bol Ri Kathputali Boli – Kathputali (1957) – Lata Mangeshkar – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music Shankar Jaikishan
Mera Naam Chin Chin Chu – Howrah Bridge (1958) – Geeta Dutt – Lyrics: Qamar Jalalabadi – Music: O P Nayyar
Ye Bansi Kyun Gaye – Parakh (1960) – Lata Mangeshkar – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music: Salil Chowdhury
It can be so easily identified that first one is a SJ composition, second one a OPN composition, the third one a Salil Chowdhury composition and the last one that of folk tune composition of another western music trained music director, N Dutta. But what requires to be noted is the value that Sebastian as a music composer has added, by so intimately blending the musical score with the natural, unique, style of the respective music director. This was the role that a music arranger was expected was to play – addition of such richness that he enshrines in the songs, while remaining totally incognito.
In 1974, when Sebastian D’Souza could no more was intrinsically able to identify himself with the then new trends of song composition, he chose to go back to his native place and spent the rest of life in teaching music to the children.
We will take up a few of the most representative songs that he arranged for Shankar Jaikishan to showcase the versatility of Sebastian’s range of creativity and devotion as a music arranger.
Here are two very well-known YT clips that further demonstrate how seemingly effortlessly Sebastian has enlivened Jaikishan’s vision of long preludes or highly experimental interludes and counters,.which we all know as the signature identification of music of SJ duo!
The magical violins of Shankar Jaikishan – Part I
The magical violins of Shankar Jaikishan – Part II
Raj Kapoor was also extremely fond of Sebastian’s work. He, SJ and Sebastian had so matching wavelengths that they could compose off the complete background score of RK’s magnum opus Mera Naam Joker in one week flat.
Normally to describe a piece of art, no words can ever do full justice. So, as we take up these illustrations, it would be better that we put on earphones and listen to the magic of SJ’s compositions and Sebastian’s immortal arrangements.
Aye Mere Dil Kahin Aur Chal – Daag (1952) – Talat Mahmood- fast and slow versions – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music: Shankar Jaikishan
In the first slow paced version, just listen to the soft strumming of guitar giving rhythmic support with so faint instrumentation play of constantly accompanying countermelody, giving the unfathomable depth to the song. In the second fast paced version, simply listen to all the variations that Sebastian has arranged for V Balsara to play on harmonium (which sounds almost like piano accordion). These pieces of countermelody remain the cherished peaks of Mount Everest benchmarks for all the music arrangement practitioners to scale!
Ban Ke Panchhi Gaye Pyar Ka Tarana – Anari (1956) – Lata Mangeshkar, chorus – Lyrics: Hasrat Jaipuri – Music: Shankar Jaikishan
This is the song that has some wonderfully imaginative uses of chorus and choir. After brief prelude (till 0.44) the song begins with fast rhythm of dholak. When the initial lines get repeated at 0.35, chorus seamlessly joins Lata Mangeshkar, with choir supporting as countermelody. Then @1.02, the choir fuses with interlude music. that not only gives the effect of the song filling up the vast open space but also clear idea of the mood that friends have reached in their cycle journey. The choir countermelody comes back with chorus @1.44 again that helps recreates the divine mood that friends have now been enjoying. @1.55 when the line of stanza ends a the opening line closes the stanza in a classical mode of music composition again with soft choir countermelody. This experiment repeats @2.54. The song softly ends with chorus and choir support. Such minutely sculpted details, in an oft-used cycle-riding group of friends’ song situation, is one of the many unique facets of Sebastian’s finely carved music arrangements that can be said to be his own hallmark.
Waltz rhythm-based song has three interludes, each one being different than the other. The prelude opens with strings of guitar and the choir then joins in the main piece of orchestra, followed by easy strains of piano-accordion and guitar ending with violin ensemble, signalling beginning of opening lines @0.36. The choir, then, accompanies the singing as countermelody @0.39. The first interlude is fine mix of saxophone and choir, with violin ensemble playing its due supportive role. The first stanza plays with mix of guitar and choir as countermelody support. The second interlude, starting @ 2.26 is dominantly a guitar and choir composition. The countermelody support for the second stanza is by very soft saxophone strains with even more soft violin ensemble support to deepen the effect. The third interlude, from 3.40 to 3.58, is again a saxophone-choir orchestration arrangement but set to totally different composition. The last stanza has guitar as countermelody support. As an overall impact, song keeps on playing in your mind the mixed mood of pathos with soothing tranquillity of the serene night, even after it has formally ended.
Shankar Jaikishan’s dance songs had its own style of presentation.
Kar Gaya Re Kar Gaya Mujh Par Jadoo – Basant Bahar (1956) – Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music: Shankar Jaikishan
Basant Bahar (1956) was the first major challenge the duo had boldly accepted to showcase their versatility. They had even succeeded in roping in no less vocalist than Pt. Bhimsen Joshi for, Ketaki gulab juhi, with Manna Dey – a duet based on raag Basant and Bahar. However in a fim like this too, they had used as much creative liberty they could enjoy in the orchestration of this dance song.
A sad dance sequence – Amrapali (1966)
However, Amrapali (1966), being a pure history-theme based story of a classical dancer, the challenge was even more demanding. The script of the film necessarily gave space for depicting pure classical dance sequences different, intense, moods. However, Sebastian D’Souza has so deftly crafted intricate play of Indian classical string instruments like Sitar and Veena in sync with various classical percussion instruments-based arrangement for such sequences as well as background score.
Tadap Ye Din Raat Ki – Amrapali (1966) – Lata Mangeshkar – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music: Shankar Jaikishan
Weaving intricate multiple instrument-based large orchestra for highly emotional songs for such films is even more demanding. A highly committed and devoted music arranger like Sebastian D’Souza would not compromise a fraction of his own high standards even for such a less practiced field. Careful listening to the song clearly manifests unbearable pians of forced separateness in the form of rapid rhythm-based mix of ensembles of Veena and Sitars, which softly calms down after the outburst by slow-paced Surbahar strokes. Sebastian has used extremely soft violins support in the countermelody to impart the depth to the song but has studiedly used ensemble of Sitar as the lead instrument of the orchestra.
Shankar Jaikishan’s penchant for experimentation and inherent leaning towards Indian classical raags, and by now Sebastian D’Souza high confidence in his ability to do full justice to Indian classical music as much as western classical music fructified in the form of NFS Long Playing record Raag Jazz Style (EMI,1968; ECSD-2377) in collaboration with sitarist Ustad Rais Khan. SJ-Sebastian roped in such top-notch musicians like Bass – Eddie Travass, Drums – Leslie Godinho, Electric Guitar – Anibal Castro, Dilip Naik; Flute – Suman; Piano – Lucilla Pacheco; Saxophone – Manohari Singh; Tabla – Ramakant and Trumpet – John Pereira for the project. The disc had three of SJ’s favourite raags – Jaijivanti, Shivranjini and Bhairavi – along with challenging raags like Todi, Bhairav, Malkauns, Kalavati, Tilak Kamod, Miyan Malhar, Bairagi and Mishra Pilu.. I have picked up Shivranaini here to showcase the high level of performance by the whole team, and intricate arrangement by Sebastian D’Souza.
One can keep recounting such nuances in each of music arrangements composed by Sebastian. However, we will limit our exploration to one more song that fully depicts the width of Sebastian’s spectrum of creativity, passion, and commitment.
Jhulmi Sang Aankh Ladi – Madhumati (1958) – Lata Mangeshkar, chorus – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music; Salil Chowdhury
The signature Salil Chowdhury composition opens with joyous mood of string and percussion instruments. The pure folk-effect chorus intensifies the mood. Sebastian has carefully crafted intricate pieces of flute ensemble in the entire arrangement thereby making out the entire outcome as unmistakably Salil Chowdhury composition. No wonder Dilip Kumar is shown mesmerised by the charm of the setting with vivacious Vyjayanthimala in the centre. So are we, too. with the magical environment that the entire song sequence creates.
Apart from the breadth and depth of virtuoso of Sebastian. these illustrations also demonstrate the pain and effort that the composer, the lyricist, the singer, the arranger, the musicians and each one associated with song recording used to take for each of the song. In return apart from the relatively paltry monetary rewards, the only recognition that the music arranger would get is small fine print mention in the credit titles of the film. However, in the hindsight, the ageless affection that these creations got that has not abated even after passing through so many generations seem to be the most invaluable rewards for their selfless devotion.
One of the rare photographs of Sebastian D’Souza conducting a live public concert performance speaks volumes for the role of the music arranger in selecting different instruments, selecting the right musician to play notes of particular standards, right positioning of the instruments w. r. t. each other and the microphones so as to yield a perfect harmony, whether in a studio recording or a live public performance.
We end our tribute to one of such great artists, Sebastian D’Souza, by recalling his one of the most iconic compositions that has all the hues of his creativity encapsuled for the future generations to savour –
Aa ab Laut Chale – Jis Desh Mein Ganga Baheti Hai (1960) – Mukesh, Lata Mageshkar, chorus – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music: Shankar Jaikishan
The first observation that comes up after the Micro Review of the Duets is that number of duets is large for the year 1943 than the normal. This is corroborated the statistics provided in the overview post of SoY – Duets occupy a 31.44% (172 out of total 547 songs) share of the total songs for which the singers are identified in HFGK.
However, out of these 172 duet songs I have been able to capture only 60 odd songs in the Micro View and SoY has taken note of 27 duets in the Memorable Songs of 1943. This makes it just half of the total population, too less for any meaningful objective study! Moreover, of the 60 duets in the Micro View, two male singers have 8 (Arun Kumar) and 6 (G M Durrani) with two or three other singers having more than one duets. That would leave almost a third of the duets with only by any given pair of singers.
With so larger proportion of one duet per pair, our practice of covering such single songs in the list of the songs that I liked during the first listening would make the list too long, and yet so incomplete. So, I will dispense with this practice for the year.
The rest of the songs that I have chosen here again have my own subjective choice, thereby rendering the entire list as being too inadequate and subjective to be classifies ‘Top Duets’ for year. So, to order some semblance to the content of the present list, I have heavily drawn from the songs included in Special Songs and Best Ten Duets of 1943 from Best songs of 1943: Wrap Up 3
Here are MY choices of duets of 1943, in the alphabetical order of name of te film-