Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs – July 2020

Welcome to July 2020 edition of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

For the year 2020, we have chosen the core subject of Revisiting Basic Quality Concepts w.r.t. the sustained success of the organization As of now we have visited

We take up The Organizational Knowledge for the Sustained Success as our next core concept this month–

Auditing Practices Group Guidance on: Organisational Knowledge, ISO & IAF (2016) defines organizational knowledge as “Organizational Knowledge is the specific knowledge of the organization, coming either from its collective experience or from the individual experience of its persons. In an explicit or implicit way this knowledge is, or can be, used to attain the organization’s objectives.”

The two important features that emerge from this definition are:

Firstly, ‘knowledge’ is an important resource.

Secondly,  ‘Organizational Knowledge‘ is an asset that we cannot quantify

The two basic ways to classify the organizational knowledge are –

Tacit knowledge: This knowledge is often referred to as the ‘know-how’ that exists in an organisation.

Examples of tacit knowledge include skills acquired through tradition, common knowledge or understanding, etc.

Explicit knowledge – Explicit knowledge is the ‘know-what’ knowledge that has been formalized, articulated and most often documented.

Examples of explicit knowledge include databases, memos, notes, documents, etc.

Some more classifications are also applied:

  • Implicit knowledge is ‘knowledge’ that can be articulated but has not yet been articulated.
  • Procedural knowledge is ‘knowledge’ that manifests itself through an activity.
  • Declarative knowledge is ‘knowledge’ that consists of descriptions of facts and things or methods and procedures.
  • Strategic knowledge is the ‘knowledge’ of when to do something and why to do it.[1]

In general, the following are the Sources of Knowledge:

Knowledge can be found almost anywhere in your organization and comes in many tangible and intangible forms. For example:

  • Individual—These are good sources of tacit knowledge.
  • Group/Community— These are good sources of explicit, implicit, and tacit knowledge.
  • Structural—These are sources of implicit knowledge.
  • Organizational memory—These are good sources for a combination of tacit and explicit knowledge.

The knowledge is generally captured in the following Repositories of Knowledge

  • Documentation of any kind
  • Internal knowledge bases
  • Customer-facing knowledge bases
  • FAQs
  • Intranets
  • Onboarding materials
  • Training materials
  • Webinars
  • Case studies

Other repositories can include:

  • Databases
  • Internal collaboration tools
  • Ticketing systems
  • Wikis/communities/forums[2]

Knowledge Model is represented as:

Knowledge Transfer is visualized as:[3]

The benefits of knowledge sharing are numerous[4]:

  • Knowledge overcomes fear
  • Knowledge breaks down barriers & facilitates communication
  • Seeing the “Big Picture” reinforces that we’re all in this together.
  • Knowledge reveals the reasons behind the actions
  • Knowledge leads to intelligent decisions.
  • Knowledge is motivating and empowering
  • Knowledge encourages involvement & breeds a feeling of ownership –
  • Knowledge creates opportunities –

Three key reasons why actively managing knowledge is important to a company’s success are[5]:

  • Facilitates decision-making capabilities,
  • Builds learning organizations by making learning routine, and,
  • Stimulates cultural change and innovation.

While most business leaders appreciate the strategic value of knowledge and the need to manage their knowledge assets, many of them seem unable to derive real benefits from their efforts. There are several reasons for this, including their persistence in viewing knowledge management (KM) as a supply-side issue, namely their belief that the acquisition of the right knowledge automatically produces benefits. Other reasons that benefits don’t materialize include a lack of focus on KM initiatives; a staggering over reliance on technology to provide both the solution and the benefit; structures that are inappropriate for capitalizing on an organization’s knowledge assets; and lastly, a lack of proper ownership[6].

An effective knowledge management strategy enables an organization to create, apply, and share information, breaking down silos and increasing usage of valuable data. The right strategy sustains organizational objectives as technologies evolve, keeps companies on the bleeding edge of industry trends, and pushing one step ahead of the competition at all times.[7]

Suggested Additional Reading:

The detailed note on The Organizational Knowledge for the Sustained Success can by clicking on the hyperlink.

We will now turn to our regular sections:

In the series the Organizational Culture, we have taken up Building The Organizational Culture

We now watch ASQ TV, wherein we look at a few relevant videos from the archive:

We do not have relevant article from Jim L. Smith’s Jim’s Gems this month.So we move on to  –

The Unfolding Course of Events – Looking to the past provides some perspective.by Michelle Bangert . “It is not given to human beings—happily for them, for otherwise life would be intolerable—to foresee or to predict to any large extent the unfolding course of events.” – Winston Churchill from his eulogy for Neville Chamberlain, November 12, 1940. – is a quote from the Erik Larson’s book The Splendid and the Vile, wherein the author has presented in the cinematic detail, how Churchill taught the British people “the art of being fearless.”

I look forward to your views / comments / inputs to further enrich the subjects of Basics of Quality and Organizational Culture and their role in Creating and Maintaining Sustained Success.

Note: The images depicted here above are through courtesy of respective websites who have the copyrights for the respective images.

[1] What is Organisational Knowledge and why is it so important?

[2] What Is Organizational Knowledge, and Where Can I Find It? – Emil Hajric

[3] A MODEL FRAMEWORK FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL INTANGIBLE ASSETSSudhir Warier

[4] 7 reasons – Organizational Knowledge is powerDonna Coppock

[5] Why Knowledge Management Is Important To The Success Of Your CompanyLisa Quast

[6] KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS A SUSTAINED COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGEPeter Murray

[7] The Competitive Advantage of the Right Knowledge Management Solution

Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs, September, 2016

Welcome to September, 2016 edition of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

We have already taken up the following topics for the familiarization of different elements of new version of ISO 9001-

For the present episode we will look at Organizational Knowledge, in general, and then move over to what ISO 9001: 2015 has to state on the subject.

Before we closely look at the subject of change in the ISO management system standards, let us quickly recapitulate a broader view of the subject and look at some randomly selected picks from the vast literature available on the subject on the internet.

What is Organizational Knowledge

  1. Organizational knowledge is equated with professional intellect (Quinn, Philip, & Sydney, 1996). Organizational knowledge is a metaphor, as it is not the organization but the people in the organization who create knowledge

 Learn more in: Explicit and Tacit Knowledge: To Share or Not to Share

  1. The body of knowledge contained, but not categorized, within the members of an organization.

 Learn more in: E-Learning Design for the Information Workplace

  1. The organizational knowledge is created and transferred within the organizational context, is rooted in: (1) company and industrial atmosphere (King & Zeithaml, 2003), (2) tacit knowledge (Grant, 2002); and is fitted in firm culture (Saint-Onge, 1996).

Has the following properties: (1) is shared between the members of the organization (2) is connected to organization history, and (3) allows a common language.

 Learn more in: Critical Success Factors and Core Competencies

Defining Organizational Knowledge : The paper starts by defining what is meant by ‘knowledge’ and ‘knowledge management’, and follows on by presenting the knowledge processes which are at the basis of knowledge management practices.

Five Types of Organisational Knowledge : In Knowledge, Knowledge Work and Organisations: An Overview and Interpretation, Blackler builds on Polanyi’s distinction between tacit and explicit knowledge (in Polyani, 1967) and identifies five types of knowledge to be found in contemporary organisations. His ideas provide useful insights into the process of knowledge management. These conceptual distinctions were first suggested to explain the psychological and behavioural aspects of knowledge. They were later adapted to describe the different ‘images’ of knowledge within the organisation.

%d8%b2the-knowledge-pyramid

Knowledge Conversion : The organization should identify and nurture knowledge-building activities that expand and enhance its core competence.

Three Types of Organizational Knowledge:  Implications For The Tacit-Explicit AND Knowledge Creation Debates – Nancie Evans  and  Mark Easterby-Smith-  Lancaster University : The paper theorizes and represents organizational learning and knowledge management as a framework of organizational knowledge  consisting of three distinct knowledge types each with a tacit and explicit dimension.

Organizational Knowledge Sharing Practices : Organizational knowledge (vs. knowledge) has distinct characteristics given its action-centered, contextual and collective nature. It is composed of both explicit manifestations as well as intangible forms of knowledge. The choice of options to implement various knowledge sharing strategies, and enabling technologies, would depend on the forms of knowledge that are the most important to the organization.

Challenges in managing organizational knowledge : IBM Institute for Knowledge-Based Organizations has identified a number of important roadblocks that organizations typically face when implementing knowledge management programs. These roadblocks are:

  • Failure to align knowledge management efforts with the organization’s strategic objectives
  • Creation of repositories without addressing the need to manage content
  • Failure to understand and connect knowledge management into individuals’ daily work activities
  • An overemphasis on formal learning efforts as a mechanism for sharing knowledge
  • Focusing knowledge management efforts only within organizational boundaries.

Journal of Organizational Knowledge Management is a full-fledged journal which covers

the topics of interest, but not limited to:

  • Knowledge management empirical research
  • Knowledge management case studies
  • Knowledge management application is education
  • Legislative issues

Here are two pictorial views TQM way and Life-Cycle Approach, respectively:

tqm_modelknowledge_lifecycle_05

We now take up a few of the many articles available on internet dealing specifically with the subject w.r.t. ISO 9001: 2015.

ISO 9001:2015 Clause 7.1.6 Organizational Knowledge : By introducing the term “knowledge,” ISO 9001:2015 aims to raise organizations’ awareness of the management and linking of know-how in order to position them for the future.

ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ISO 9001-2015Raghu Malayanuru looks at other clauses where Organizational Knowledge is addressed, knowledge requirements of an organization, documents that may provide evidence of Organization Knowledge. Nacaro Williams in his studied comment, places more emphasis on reliance on the Notes to clause 7.1.6.

Organizational Knowledge Introduced in ISO 9001:2015  – Brian Reece

ISO 9001:2015 defines requirements for the handling of organizational knowledge in the following four phases, which are analogous to the PDCA cycle:

  1. Determine the knowledge necessary for the operation of processes and for achieving conformity of products and services
  2. Maintain knowledge and make it available to the extent necessary
  3. Consider the current organizational knowledge and compare it to changing needs and trends
  4. Acquire the necessary additional knowledge.

ISO 9001:2015 and Effective Organizational Knowledge   – Andrew Holt analyzes the new organizational knowledge requirement in ISO 9001:2015 through the lens of SECI model.  

Image 1: The SECI Model (Nonanka & Takuchi, 1995).
Image 1: The SECI Model (Nonanka & Takuchi, 1995).

What is Organizational Knowledge in ISO 9001:2015? – It will be imperative that an organization performs its due diligence through risk management when determining what knowledge is necessary and how it is maintained and made available.

ISO 9001: 2015 – Organizational Knowledge Management Requirements Webcast

In this new webcast, standards expert and active member of the U.S. Standards committees, shares some insights on the new elements of knowledge management within ISO 9001:2015, and provides tips for meeting the requirements of documenting, tracking, and making value-added knowledge available, for the health and continuous improvement of the organization.

How to meet the Knowledge Management requirement within ISO 9001

  • As part of a Knowledge Management Strategy, you define your critical knowledge needs
  • You create a Knowledge Management Framework for your organization that ensures knowledge is created, discussed, captured, synthesized, and re-used. This framework contains the four critical enablers; Roles, Processes, Technologies, Governance. The contents, scale and complexity of this framework will vary enormously – from very simple (in the case of a small company) to sophisticated and complex for major multinationals.
  • You run a scan or audit of your critical knowledge topics, to ensure each of these is in an acceptably managed state

How to manage knowledge of the organization according to ISO 9001 – Mark Hammar – It is specific knowledge to the organization, generally gained by experience, which is used and shared to achieve the objectives of the organization. This can come internally, such as intellectual property, lessons learned from failure and successes, or the results of improvements; or it can come externally from conferences, customer knowledge, or supplier knowledge.

Knowledge Management and ISO 9001:2015 – This newsletter explores the implications of the ISO 9001:2015 knowledge clause, and how this can impact Knowledge Managers (and their Quality department colleagues) worldwide.

Organizational knowledge in ISO 9001:2015 – The ‘glass-half-full’ here is that Knowledge Management has started to appear in ISO 9001. The ‘glass-half-empty’ is that it is so very high-level in its stated requirement. It’s barely even a guideline.

7.1.6 Organizational knowledge – When implementing this clause or when explaining to the auditor, how this clause is implemented, some basic understanding of knowledge management can be useful.  Knowledge can be classified into two broad categories.

  • Explicit Knowledge or Formal Knowledge is one that can be formally documented
  • With Tacit Knowledge, people are not often aware of the knowledge they possess or how it can be valuable to others. Effective transfer of tacit knowledge generally requires extensive personal contact, regular interaction and trust. Example: how to ride bicycle.

Let us look at a few videos on the subject:

Organizational Knowledge

How to Manage Organizational Knowledge Effectively? by David Hershfield, SVP at Redcats

KM Audit & Measurement

Knowledge Management – Managing Tacit and Explicit Knowledge

ISO9001:2015 Transition Part 14: Organizational Knowledge, Job Insecurity, and Change Resistance

It appears to be quite an obvious case that the introduction of this subject as requirement has challenges at different levels, but is not yet fully deciphered as to how and to what it can be gainfully shown to have been implemented.  So, for the time being, we rest our discussions on the today’s topic here.

For the October, 2016 episode, we will take Control of Human Errors w.r.t. Quality Management, in the new versions of these management standards.

We will now turn to our regular sections:

ASQ CEO, Bill Troy in his ASQ’s Influential VoiceAugust Roundtable: Integrating Technical Quality and Human Management Systems’ has set the tone for our next month’s subject.

We now watch two of the latest ASQ TV  episode :

  • Quality and Sports – Learn about the ever-growing connection between quality and sports: How assessing one’s ability to adjust to failure can lead to better performance in athletics—and beyond.

Jim L. Smith’s Jim’s Gems for the month of August, 2016 does not have any article.

I look forward to your active participation in enriching the blog carnival as we pursue our journey in exploring the happenings across quality management blogs…………

Note: The images depicted here above are through courtesy of respective websites who have the copyrights for the respective images.