The Sculptors of Film Songs – 1 – Sebastian D’Souza

Originally in Gujarati, by Piyush M Pandya

Translated by Ashok M Vaishnav

Evolution of Film Music

A school of knowledgeable people believe that the music came into being when an infinitely dense singularity exploded with a Big Bang to bring our universe into existence. That explosion is our primal sound.  The spread of that sound on a wave of radiation brought rhythm into existence. Thus, the two basic elements of music – the note (melody) and the beat (rhythm) – also can be believed to have come into existence simultaneously with the universe coming into being. The blowing of winds, explosions of volcanoes, the thunders of clouds and the strong winds of tornadoes that kept happening throughout the chain of events on the earth brought in them vast range of sounds, The waves of oceans, flowing waters of streams, winds blowing through the woods, the chime of rain drops falling on the leaves blended variety to the diversity of sound.

Then, at some stage of evolution, human beings started recreating this ‘music’ of the nature into the languages that human beings understood. The process has been evolving over the path of millions of years of human evolution and shall continue as long as humans exists.

One of the paths that led to the development of a form is what we now know as film music. In the Indian context, along with the advent of ‘talky’ films, in the third decade of twentieth century, the songs also came into being in the films. That indeed was the dawn of a new era. By 1935, the playback singing also came onto field. The film music gradually, but surely, came out of the shadow of theater style music. New crop of music directors and singers entered the arena. Also came in the then modern recording technology as well.

In consonance with rule of market economy- more the decent returns, more will be the competent players in the market – the virtuous cycle of pull for different forces of the film music started gaining momentum. As such, between the period of second half of ‘40s to ’60s, many outstanding music directors, music arrangers, musicians, sound recordists, lyricists and singers emerged on the stage. As they kept getting favourable circumstances, they boldly tried new experiments that showcased the breadth and depth of their creative competency spectrum.

At this stage, we do have to recognise that an average listener of any form of the music hardly has inclination for the technicalities like raags or scale or rhythm. As such, it should be no surprise if they do not notice the subtleties of different music instruments or the variations in singing styles. For him, what pleases to the ears or what can be easily hummed is a good music. It was this effect that drew that average lay listener to the film music. Along with actor enacting a song on the screen, he could now recognize the singer and perhaps the music director. Some discerning listeners also started giving recognition to the lyricist. It may not be overstatement to note that film music played a very strong, even if unconscious, role in cultivating some rudimentary appreciation of the music per se at the mass appeal level.

But, alas, very critical link in the entire chain of a film song composition, that of music arrangers like Frank Fernand, Antonio Xavier Vaz (a.k.a. Chic Chocolate), Sebastian D’Souza, Anthony Gonsalves, and musicians ranging from ace accordionists Gudi Saravai and Sumit Mitra to classical flutists Pannal Ghosh and Hariprasad Chaurasia.and many other such legendary instrumentalists still remained unrecognised in terms of their contribution to the film music. Even this list would be grossly incomplete if we do not mention names of instrumentalists / arrangers like Dattaram, Basu-Manohari, Sonik-Omi, Babla, Uattam Sigh and the likes who ventured into the field of independent music direction but could not make, so called, successful headway.

To buttress the point of intention, a few examples will better serve the purpose:

    • Who has played that master piece of saxophone just after the line Bhul Koi Na Jo Hamse Ho Jaaye in the famous song Roop Tera Mastana of Aradhana (1969)?
    • Do you remember sweet pieces of flute in Main Piya Teri Tu Maane Ya Na Maane (Basant Bahar, 1956)? Who would have played such enchanting pieces?
    • Or, that harmonium piece in Kajara Mohabbatwala from Kismat (1968)?
    • Have you noticed the pain of loneliness in Tu Chhupi Hai Kahan (Navrang, 1958) being so effectively being accentuated by the Shehnai pitching in the music?

The role of music arranger was to shape the basic idea of the tune that.the music director has composed for the lyrics penned by the lyricist into a full-fledged song. It is the arranger who selects the correct rhythm and corresponding appropriate percussion instrument as well as the other melody music of prelude or interludes or countermelody support and the corresponding instrument(s). Each piece will be designed in detail, which instrument will play exactly when, in what scale and what style, who will play what etc. These details were all codified by the arranger and meticulously explained to each instrumentalist. Then, there would rehearsals to iron out the kinks as well as the need to tune in the different orchestra elements as one unit. Next, the rehearsal would be held with singer, usually, prior to the recording sessions. And when all was set to a level of acceptable standard, the final recording would take place.

Without taking away the due credit to music director for imagining such notes, the lyricist giving it a concrete body and the singer making it come alive, it is the arranger and the instrumentalist concerned who are the unsung cornerstones for that imagination to fructify into the reality of a glorious structure of art that we call a song.

With this prelude, we gear up to commence our present series of The Sculptors of Hindi Film Music, that would introduce us to some of the leading music arrangers and instrumentalists who played great role in shaping the music of the golden era of the Hindi film music.

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As is most timely apt, we commence the series with Sebastian D’Souza (29 January 1906 – 9 March 1998), a successful Goan music arranger in the Bollywood music industry, who is largely credited with changing the entire harmonic structure of the Hindi film song to create an extremely listenable full body of sound behind the voice of the singer

Sebastian D’Souza spent his childhood and adolescence in his native Goa. His natural passion and inborn knack for the musical instruments were nourished in the tradition of Church music there. He easily went on to learn violin, cello and piano. While learning to play these instruments, he also learnt the writing of notations. It was during this time that he very attentively used to listen to the famous symphonies of well-known composers of the western world.

Asides:

At the risk of a little digression, since we would be focusing more on orchestral arrangement of musical instruments in the present series, a word about the violin family of string instruments would be in order.

Quite easily recognised ‘violin’ comes in four different sizes. The violin, which is the smallest, viola, cello, and the biggest, the double bass, sometimes called the contrabass. (Bass is pronounced “base,” as in “baseball.”) The smaller instruments, the violin and viola, make higher-pitched sounds, while the larger cello and double bass produce low rich sounds.

After partition in 1947, Sebastian D’Souza decided to settle in Bombay and pursue his career as violinist in the film industry. Here he would play violin for many of the then stalwarts like Anil Biswas, Ghulam Haider, Sajjad Hussain, Vinod, Husnlal Bhagatram etc. In 1948-49, when O P Nayyar got his first assignment to compose a solo for CH Atma  (Preetam Aan Milo), he assigned its music arrangement to Sebastian D’Souza. When O P Nayyar got his first film – Aasmaan (1952) – he again entrusted Sebastian D’Souza the responsibility of full-fledged music arrangement. O P Nayyar – Sebastian association prospered very well and continued till 1973. Their last film together was Pran Jaye Par Vachan Na Jaye.

Asides:

Incidentally, the Filmfare awarded song of the film, Chain Se Humko Kabhi Aapne Jeene Na Diya, was recorded just before Asha Bhosle – O P Nayyar parted ways.

For our present purpose, listen to the effective the soft instrumental notes accompanying the song as counter melody has been in enhancing the pathos of the song!

In 1952, Sebastian D’Souza’s Sonny Castelino, a Shankar Jaikishan team regular, introduced Sebastian to the SJ duo. Daag (1952) marked the beginning of another unstinted long association in the film industry. Sebastian went on to arrange music for each of SJ film, till 1974, ending the run with Sanyasi., all songs of the film set to raag Bhairavi. As someone trained in western classical music, Sebastian faced the challenge of learning Indian classical raag structure, since both Shankar and Jaikishan markedly preferred their songs to be based on Indian Classical music.

Another major work of Sebastian was with Salil Chowdhury. Salil Chowdhury is well known to recycle his Bengali songs into Hindi films. Here is one illustration wherein the value addition that a music arranger fully entwined with style of the music director can make:

Dhitang Dhitang Bole – Awaz (1956) – Hemant Kumar, Lata Mangeshkar, an unknown singer and chorus – Lyrics: Prem Dhawan – Music Salil Chowdhury | Bengali version – Singer: Hemant Kumar – Music” Salil Chowdhury

The creative use of counter melody, harmony and chorus in the music arrangement seems to make so obvious a difference between the two versions, composed by the same music director. The music arrangement of the Hindi version is by Sebastian D’Souza.

Before we take up some representative songs for a closer view, let us look at some typical songs exemplify the benchmark that Sebastian has set for the role of an ideal music arranger.

Bol Ri Kathputali Boli – Kathputali (1957) – Lata Mangeshkar – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music Shankar Jaikishan

Mera Naam Chin Chin Chu – Howrah Bridge (1958) – Geeta Dutt – Lyrics: Qamar Jalalabadi – Music: O P Nayyar

Ye Bansi Kyun Gaye – Parakh (1960) – Lata Mangeshkar – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music: Salil Chowdhury

https://youtu.be/lGWMi1f8ed0

Mohe Laa De Chunariaya Lal – Char Diwari (1964) – Geeta Dutt, Suman Kalyanpur – Lyrics: Sahir Ludhiyanvi – Music: N Dutta

It can be so easily identified that first one is a SJ composition, second one a OPN composition, the third one a Salil Chowdhury composition and the last one that of folk tune composition of another western music trained music director, N Dutta. But what requires to be noted is the value that Sebastian as a music composer has added, by so intimately blending the musical score with the natural, unique, style of the respective music director. This was the role that a music arranger was expected was to play – addition of such richness that he enshrines in the songs, while remaining totally incognito.

In 1974, when Sebastian D’Souza could no more was intrinsically able to identify himself with the then new trends of song composition, he chose to go back to his native place and spent the rest of life in teaching music to the children.

We will take up a few of the most representative songs that he arranged for Shankar Jaikishan to showcase the versatility of Sebastian’s range of creativity and devotion as a music arranger.

Here are two very well-known YT clips that further demonstrate how seemingly effortlessly Sebastian has enlivened Jaikishan’s vision of long preludes or highly experimental interludes and counters,.which we all know as the signature identification of music of SJ duo!

The magical violins of Shankar Jaikishan – Part I

The magical violins of Shankar Jaikishan – Part II

Asides:

Raj Kapoor was also extremely fond of Sebastian’s work. He, SJ and Sebastian had so matching wavelengths that they could compose off the complete background score of RK’s magnum opus Mera Naam Joker in one week flat.

Normally to describe a piece of art, no words can ever do full justice. So, as we take up these illustrations, it would be better that we put on earphones and listen to the magic of SJ’s compositions and Sebastian’s immortal arrangements.

Aye Mere Dil Kahin Aur Chal – Daag (1952) – Talat Mahmood- fast and slow versions – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music: Shankar Jaikishan

In the first slow paced version, just listen to the soft strumming of guitar giving rhythmic support with so faint instrumentation play of constantly accompanying countermelody, giving the unfathomable depth to the song. In the second fast paced version, simply listen to all the variations that Sebastian has arranged for V Balsara to play on harmonium (which sounds almost like piano accordion). These pieces of countermelody remain the cherished peaks of Mount Everest benchmarks for all the music arrangement practitioners to scale!

Ban Ke Panchhi Gaye Pyar Ka Tarana – Anari (1956) – Lata Mangeshkar, chorus – Lyrics: Hasrat Jaipuri – Music: Shankar Jaikishan

This is the song that has some wonderfully imaginative uses of chorus and choir. After brief prelude (till 0.44) the song begins with fast rhythm of dholak. When the initial lines get repeated at 0.35, chorus seamlessly joins Lata Mangeshkar, with choir supporting as countermelody. Then @1.02, the choir fuses with interlude music. that not only gives the effect of the song filling up the vast open space but also clear idea of the mood that friends have reached in their cycle journey. The choir countermelody comes back with chorus @1.44 again that helps recreates the divine mood that friends have now been enjoying. @1.55 when the line of stanza ends a the opening line closes the stanza in a classical mode of music composition again with soft choir countermelody. This experiment repeats @2.54. The song softly ends with chorus and choir support. Such minutely sculpted details, in an oft-used cycle-riding group of friends’ song situation, is one of the many unique facets of Sebastian’s finely carved music arrangements that can be said to be his own hallmark.

Ajib Dastan Hai Yeh – Dil Apna Aur Preet Parai (196) – Latamngeshkar, chorus – Lyics: Shailendra – Music: Shankar Jaikishan

Waltz rhythm-based song has three interludes, each one being different than the other. The prelude opens with strings of guitar and the choir then joins in the main piece of orchestra, followed by easy strains of piano-accordion and guitar ending with violin ensemble, signalling beginning of opening lines @0.36. The choir, then, accompanies the singing as countermelody @0.39. The first interlude is fine mix of saxophone and choir, with violin ensemble playing its due supportive role. The first stanza plays with mix of guitar and choir as countermelody support. The second interlude, starting @ 2.26 is dominantly a guitar and choir composition. The countermelody support for the second stanza is by very soft saxophone strains with even more soft violin ensemble support to deepen the effect. The third interlude, from 3.40 to 3.58, is again a saxophone-choir orchestration arrangement but set to totally different composition. The last stanza has guitar as countermelody support. As an overall impact, song keeps on playing in your mind the mixed mood of pathos with soothing tranquillity of the serene night, even after it has formally ended.

Shankar Jaikishan’s dance songs had its own style of presentation.

Kar Gaya Re Kar Gaya Mujh Par Jadoo – Basant Bahar (1956) – Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhosle – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music: Shankar Jaikishan

Basant Bahar (1956) was the first major challenge the duo had boldly accepted to showcase their versatility. They had even succeeded in roping in no less vocalist than Pt. Bhimsen Joshi for, Ketaki gulab juhi, with Manna Dey – a duet based on raag Basant and Bahar. However in a fim like this too, they had used as much creative liberty they could enjoy in the orchestration of this dance song.

A sad dance sequence – Amrapali (1966)

However, Amrapali (1966), being a pure history-theme based story of a classical dancer, the challenge was even more demanding. The script of the film necessarily gave space for depicting pure classical dance sequences different, intense, moods. However, Sebastian D’Souza has so deftly crafted intricate play of Indian classical string instruments like Sitar and Veena in sync with various classical percussion instruments-based arrangement for such sequences as well as background score.

Tadap Ye Din Raat Ki – Amrapali (1966) – Lata Mangeshkar – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music: Shankar Jaikishan

Weaving intricate multiple instrument-based large orchestra for highly emotional songs for such films is even more demanding. A highly committed and devoted music arranger like Sebastian D’Souza would not compromise a fraction of his own high standards even for such a less practiced field. Careful listening to the song clearly manifests unbearable pians of forced separateness in the form of rapid rhythm-based mix of ensembles of Veena and Sitars, which softly calms down after the outburst by slow-paced Surbahar strokes. Sebastian has used extremely soft violins support in the countermelody to impart the depth to the song but has studiedly used ensemble of Sitar as the lead instrument of the orchestra.

Shankar Jaikishan’s penchant for experimentation and inherent leaning towards Indian classical raags, and by now Sebastian D’Souza high confidence in his ability to do full justice to Indian classical music as much as western classical music fructified in the form of NFS Long Playing record Raag Jazz Style (EMI,1968; ECSD-2377) in collaboration with sitarist Ustad Rais Khan. SJ-Sebastian roped in such top-notch musicians like Bass – Eddie Travass, Drums – Leslie Godinho, Electric Guitar – Anibal Castro, Dilip Naik; Flute – Suman; Piano – Lucilla Pacheco; Saxophone – Manohari Singh; Tabla – Ramakant and Trumpet – John Pereira for the project. The disc had three of SJ’s favourite raags – Jaijivanti, Shivranjini and Bhairavi – along with challenging raags like Todi, Bhairav, Malkauns, Kalavati, Tilak  Kamod, Miyan Malhar, Bairagi and Mishra Pilu.. I have picked up Shivranaini here to showcase the high level of performance by the whole team, and intricate arrangement by Sebastian D’Souza.

One can keep recounting such nuances in each of music arrangements composed by Sebastian. However, we will limit our exploration to one more song that fully depicts the width of Sebastian’s spectrum of creativity, passion, and commitment.

Jhulmi Sang Aankh Ladi – Madhumati (1958) – Lata Mangeshkar, chorus – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music; Salil Chowdhury

The signature Salil Chowdhury composition opens with joyous mood of string and percussion instruments. The pure folk-effect chorus intensifies the mood. Sebastian has carefully crafted intricate pieces of flute ensemble in the entire arrangement thereby making out the entire outcome as unmistakably Salil Chowdhury composition. No wonder Dilip Kumar is shown mesmerised by the charm of the setting with vivacious Vyjayanthimala in the centre. So are we, too. with the magical environment that the entire song sequence creates.

Apart from the breadth and depth of virtuoso of Sebastian. these illustrations also demonstrate the pain and effort that the composer, the lyricist, the singer, the arranger, the musicians and each one associated with song recording used to take for each of the song. In return apart from the relatively paltry monetary rewards, the only recognition that the music arranger would get is small fine print mention in the credit titles of the film. However, in the hindsight, the ageless affection that these creations got that has not abated even after passing through so many generations seem to be the most invaluable rewards for their selfless devotion.

One of the rare photographs of Sebastian D’Souza conducting a live public concert performance speaks volumes for the role of the music arranger in selecting different instruments, selecting the right musician to play notes of particular standards, right positioning of the instruments w. r. t. each other and the microphones so as to yield a perfect harmony, whether in a studio recording or a live public performance.

We end our tribute to one of such great artists, Sebastian D’Souza, by recalling his one of the most iconic compositions that has all the hues of his creativity encapsuled for the future generations to savour –

Aa ab Laut Chale – Jis Desh Mein Ganga Baheti Hai (1960) – Mukesh, Lata Mageshkar, chorus – Lyrics: Shailendra – Music: Shankar Jaikishan

https://youtu.be/H8Fu_O7y-dg

Credits and Disclaimers 

    1. The song links have been embedded from the YouTube only for the listening pleasure of music lovers. This blog claims no copyright over these songs, which vests with the respective copyright holders.
    2. The photographs are taken form the internet, duly recognising the full copyrights for the same to the either original creator or the site where they were originally displayed.

The article is originally published on Songs of Yore as The Sculptors of Film Songs (1): Sebastian D’Souza

Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music – Volume XI – January 2023 Edition

Welcome to January 2023 edition of XIth Volume of Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music.

Mehfil Mein Meri opens the New Year with A New Beginning………., with a new subject to one’s liking.

So True….. everything is done in full flow when you do it because you like it.

Indeed, a very good thought to begin the New Year.

SoY opens the new year account with ‘Parent’-‘Adult’-‘Child’ in songs has also an implicit message that every ‘adult’ should continue to strive to keep ‘child’ within remain live throughout the life cycle.

Presently we move on to our section on tributes and celebrations for the month –

Hrishikesh Mukherjee: Master of the Middle Path By Ratnottama Sengupta – A heartfelt piece as a centenary tribute to master filmmaker Hrishikesh Mukherjee.  – “This is one of the biggest ironies of life you know! That, as we grow in years, we grow more experienced, and richer in thought. But, the more we have to give to the world, the less equal, less capable our body gets…”

An exclusive pen and ink sketch of Hrishikesh Mukherjee by renowned artist Subrata Gangopadhyay

Pyarelal Santoshi: Jack of All Trades? – D P Ranagn pays tribute to polymath  Pyare Lal (P.L.) Santoshi

Films Are Art, Not Commerce was the motto that Khwaja Ahmed (K.A.) Abbas that remains a testament to this man’s dedication, commitment and perseverance.

Continuing the series, the year-wise review of Lata Mangeshkar’s career, on Lata Mangeshkar, Mehfil Mein Teri revisits favourites from the year 1956 in 1956 – Lata Mangeshkar

The Masters: Kaifi Azmi b- Born Sayyed Athar Husain Rizvi on in Mijwan (Azamgarh, Eastern Uttar Pradesh) in a zamindar family, Kaifi Azmi demonstrated his poetic skills very early on.

“Hum Ko Mann Ki Shakti Dena Mann Vijay Karein” – Lalita Kumari – Born in Peshawar on July 6, 1938, Lalita Kumari entered the world of Hindi films through Navketan’s AandhiyaN (1952).

Behind the ScenesA Patchwork Quilt is just that – a patchwork of memories – of Paranjpye’s life, travels, plays, films – and the persons and personalities she met along the way.

November 2022 episode of Fading Memories, Unforgettable Songs takes up Jaidev: Brilliant, But Underrated, Composer:  1976 – 1977. Till now,

In 2018, we listened to his songs from the most successful films phase of 1955 to 1963.

In 2019, we listened to his more remembered songs from his less remembered films for 1964 to 1970,

in 2020, we listened to highly appreciated songs from the films that did not succeed in 1971,

In 2021, we recalled the songs that have faded out because the films flopped in 1972-1973, and

In 2022, we listened to his melodies form relatively not so known films for the years 1974 and 1975

Shailendra Sharma @ Golden Era of Bollywood has not posted the memorial tribute posts for the month till the writing for the present post.:

We now move on to posts on other subjects –

Contribution of Marathi Composers in Bollywood – Part I focuses on Snehal Bhatkar and  N Dutta, Part II on Dattaram, Sudhir Phadke and Vasant Desai and Part III on C Ramchandra.

Some Favorite Noor Jehan Film Songs Related to Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (and some other Qalandars too), the songs that come from the playback singing that she did in Pakistani films revolving around Lal Shahbaz Qalandar – or, in at least one or two cases, other Qalandars or saints in the Sufi tradition

Chal Ri Sajani Ab Kya Soche – Torn Between Two WorldsChal ri sajani ab kya soche is synonymous with the bidaai, the heart-breaking moment of departure when the bride steps across the threshold into an unknown world. Shirish Waghmode revisits this classic created by the SD Burman-Majrooh-Mukesh team and emoted in perfect sync by Suchitra Sen and Dev Anand along with Nasir Hussain (the father) and Achala Sachdev (the mother) for Raj Khosla’s Bombai Ka Babu.

Javed Akhtar on how cinema has changed: ‘Improved on the form though lost out on the context’ – A Book ExcerptNasreen Munni Kabir’s conversation book ‘Talking Life’ follows ‘Talking Films’ and ‘Talking Songs’.

Bhabhi Songs Part 1: With the DevarSome of the songs do not specifically have these kinship terms mentioned in the lyrics but the characters on screen play the role of the devar and bhabhi.

Ten of my favourite ‘two songs in one’, the songs where the two styles of the song alternate

The ‘Fusion Songs’ lists songs that has seamlessly interwoven two different styles of music in the song

Songs of Anger focuses on Hindi films songs with the words the words krodh (क्रोध)/ khafa (ख़फ़ा)/naaraaz (नाराज़)/gussa (ग़ुस्सा)

From Bollywood Rewind – Sampada Sharma – Indian Express’s weekly column:

Gulzar’s Parichay is a study of a dysfunctional family, but can we accept that ours is broken? – Gulzar’s Parichay is a humble reminder that love might be the solution to all problems but to actually solve those problems, loving each other is never sufficient.

Basu Chatterjee’s Khatta Meetha is India’s version of Modern Family, but with all the problematic tropes – Khatta Meetha might seem like a harmless, innocent film that is designed to appeal to the good-heartedness of a regular middle class family. But the movie casually ignores the tropes that it introduces and turns it into plot points.

Gulzar’s Achanak is what Akshay Kumar’s Rustom would have been if it didn’t take the easy way out – In Gulzar’s 1973 film Achanak, an army officer murders his cheating wife and her lover but then we start questioning how this relationship even disintegrated.

We have moved forward with Micro View of Duets for 1943, with Female-Female Duets(+) and Triads(+) to conclude with My Top Duets.

In continuation to our tradition of ending the post with a few songs of Mohammad Rafi, for the year, it is planned to recall the first duet Mohamad Rafi and Geeta Dutt had with a music director.

Jai Hind Ki Yeh KahaniyaN – Mansarovar (1946) – Deepak/IshwarChandra Kapoor – S N Tripathi

Sambhal Sambhal Ke Jaiyao O Banjare… Dilli Door Hai – Saajan (1947) – with Lalita Deolkar – Rammurti Chaturvedi – C Ramchandra

Phool Ko Le Baitha Khaar, Tera Kanto Se Hai Pyar – Chunariya (1948) – Mulkraj Bhakri – Hansraj Behl

Badla Hua Duniya Mein Ulfat Ka Fasana Hai – Hamari Manzil (1949) – Qamar Jalalabadi – Husnlal Bhagatram

I look forward to your inputs to enrich the contents of Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music.

Disclaimer: This monthly series of posts is my best-effort-based compilation of posts on Hindi film songs that I normally visit regularly. As I record my sincere thanks to all the original creators of these posts, any other posts that I have nor covered herein shows my lack of awareness of existence of such posts and is by no means any disrespect to their work. The copyrights to the posts, images and video clips remain the properties of the original creators

The Micro View of Songs of 1943 – The Duets – MY Top Duet Songs

The first observation that comes up after the Micro Review of the Duets is that number of duets is large for the year 1943 than the normal. This is corroborated the statistics provided in the overview post of SoY – Duets occupy a 31.44% (172 out of total 547 songs) share of the total songs for which the singers are identified in HFGK.

However, out of these 172 duet songs I have been able to capture only 60 odd songs in the Micro View and SoY has taken note of 27 duets in the Memorable Songs of 1943. This makes it just half of the total population, too less for any meaningful objective study! Moreover, of the 60 duets in the Micro View, two male singers have 8 (Arun Kumar) and 6 (G M Durrani) with two or three other singers having more than one duets. That would leave almost a third of the duets with only by any given pair of singers.

With so larger proportion of one duet per pair, our practice of covering such single songs in the list of the songs that I liked during the first listening would make the list too long, and yet so incomplete. So, I will dispense with this practice for the year.

The rest of the songs that I have chosen here again have my own subjective choice, thereby rendering the entire list as being too inadequate and subjective to be classifies ‘Top Duets’ for year. So, to order some semblance to the content of the present list, I have heavily drawn from the songs included in Special Songs and Best Ten Duets of 1943 from Best songs of 1943: Wrap Up 3

Here are MY choices of duets of 1943, in the alphabetical order of name of te film-

GM Durrani, Sitara – Gori Baanke Nayan Se Chalaaye Jadua – Aabroo (1943) – ‘Hasrat’ Lakhanav – Govind Ram

Anjali and Motilal – Kaanton sa chubhata jata hai – Aage Kadam (1943) – Kailash Matwala – Master Madhav Lal and RC Pal

Master Amritlal, Leela Pawar – Ho Mat Piyo More Chhaila Tambaku ReAage Kadam (1943) – Kailash Matwala- Madholal Master and RC Pal

G M Durrani, Kaushalya – NainoN Mein NainaN Dinho Daal, O Baanke Nainawale – Angoori – Ram Murti – Ghulam Mustafa (G.M.) Durrani

Vishnupant Pagnis, Kaushalya – Jo Hum Bhale Bure Ho Tere – Bhakta Raj – D N Madhok – C Ramchandara

Ishwarlal, Kaushlya – Do Bol Mohabbatwale Koi Bolo ….  – Chirag – D N Madhok – Khemchand Prakash

Arun Kumar (Mukherjee), Suraiya – Bistar bichha diya hai tere ghar ke saamneHamari Baat (1943) – Wali Saheb – Anil Biswas

Arunkumar,  Amirbai Karnataki –  Hum Aisi Kismet Ko Kya Kahein Haye, Jo Ek Din Hansaaye Ek Din Rulaaye – Kismet (1943) – Pradeep – Anil Biswas

Chitalkar and Parul Ghosh – More Raja Ki Oonchi AtariyaMuskurahat (1943) – IC Kapoor – C Ramchandra

Paresh Banerjee and Rajkumari – Dhuein Ki Gaadi Udaye Liya Jaaye – Nai Kahani (1943) – Wali Saheb – Shyam Sundar

Paresh Banerjee and Rajkumari –  Manmandir  Mein Aye Baalam – Nai Kahani (1943) – Wali Saheb – Shyam Sundar

Parul Ghosh, Sitara – Fasle Bahar Gaae Ja Dil Mein Gam Rulae Ja– Najma – Anjum Pilibhiti – Rafiq Gazanavi  B A

S N Tripathi, Rajkumari – Panghat Par Paani Bharane – Panghat – Ramesh Gupta – S N Tripathi

Rafique Ghazanvi, Menka, Chorus – Panchhi Ud Chala Apne Desh, ….  – Prithvi Vallabh – Pt. Sudarshan – Rafique Ghazanvi

Kishore Sahu, Pratima Dasgupta – Niraali Duniya Hamari – Raja – Rammurti – Khan Mastana

Saraswati Rane and Amirbai Karnataki – Aao Ri Suhagan Nari Mangal Gaao Ri – Ram Rajya (1943)- Ramesh Gupta – Shankar Rao Vyas

Kamal Dasgupta and Anima Dasgupta – Saawan mein boondan ki jhalar daaliRani (1943) – Pt. Madhur- Kamal Dasgupta

Noor Mohammad Charlie, Suraiya – Udate Panchhi Kaun Unako Bataye– Sanjog- D N Madhok – Naushad Ali

Jayshree and Zohrabai Ambalewali – Chaand sa nanha aye phoolon sa khil khil jaayeShakuntala (1943)- Ratan Piya – Vasant Desai

Khan Mastana, Zohrabai Amabalewali – Suahaani Suhaani Ho Gayi Suhaani, Sajan Apani Zindgani Ho Gayi Suhaani – Talaash  – A. Karim – Khan Mastana

Asit Baran and Binota Roy(?) – Jeevan Hai Bekaar Bina Tumhare – Wapas (1943) – Pt. Bhushan – RC Boral

Asit Baran and Indrani (?) – Bhool Na Jana Aaj Ki Baatein – Wapas (1943)- Munshi Zakir Hussain – music RC Boral

SoY, in Best songs of 1943: Wrap Up 3,  states that three duets – More Baalapan Ke Saathi Bhul Jaiyo Nahappy and sad versions – (Tansen, K L Saigal, Khursheed – Music – Khemchand Prakash); Dheere Dheere Aa Re Badal Dheere Dheere Aa (Kismet – Arun Kumar (Ashok Kumar), Amirbai Karanatki – Music: Anil Biswas) and Bharat Ke Ek Sannari Ki Katha Sunate Hai (Ram Rajya – Yashwant Bua Joshi and Yaswant Nikam – Music: Shankar Rao Vyas) have stood the test of times and are till so well  remembered even today. I, personally endorse the statement.

Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs – Volume XI – January 2023 Edition

Welcome to January 2023 edition of the XIth volume of Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs.

The theme for the XIth volume of our Carnival of Quality Management Articles and Blogs is The Defining Trends of Quality Management – An Analytical Survey.

The aim for the present episode to overview the major trends already identified in the first two years of the present decade that are expected to shape the working philosophy for the quality management professionals. We shall look at some of the critical trends in a little more details in the subsequent months.

In order to identify the first step is carry out the trend analysis.

The trend analysis can be carried out from either the perspective of past data or from the potential changes that can take place in the future.

The real, lasting, and positive change to happen from implementation of CAPA[1] (from the past trends) or from the actions emending out of strategic planning – based on appropriate risj management approach -may require rethinking on the organization’s approach to trend analysis w. r. t. the quality management philosophy. These three questions provide a good beginning before taking up new trend analysis areas or tools/ modifying the existing ones.

  • What is the primary objective of the trend analysis? – One fundamental guiding principle is that a meaningful trend analysis should identify, evaluate and eliminate or prevent the issue that is having negative effect on product quality or customer expectations or to enable the organization to maintain / improve / sustain its competitive edge in the future.
  • What method to choose? – Primarily this driven by the basic purpose of the trend analysis exercise.
  • Is the data being analysed timely and adequate? – The timeliness of the data would mean that data neither should be outdated or should be irrelevant for the purpose and period of the trend analysis.

We now try to enlist major trends as identified in the presently documented literature:

    1. Changes in quality perceptions and approaches in terms of product and system quality as well as customer expectations.
    2. Evolving of management of risks under constantly changing business practices
    3. Knowledge sharing within and across the departments as well with outside stakeholders.
    4. Increasing significance of decision intelligence
    5. Improving the quality and reliability of the supply chain.
    6. Defining quality standards and related job roles in view of increasing need for seamless blending of technical and cross-functional skills.
    7. Increasing significance of integration of QEHS
    8. Increased importance of quality management approach with enterprise-level strategic planning

Apart from these generic issues, there are industry-sector specific trends analyses that can also help bring more generic issues under the radar.

The subject of trends analyses for very specific areas like  quality /environment /occupational and health and safety standards, geo-political-economical-social micro level and macro-level realignments, business performance measurement practices, micro- and macro-level racial and cultural changes etc.

There would be more trends identified in areas of Sustainability, Social relevance and Business continuity or Use of Quality 4.0 technology vis-à-vis Industry 4.0 technologies and IT technologies and the like.

Some of the Sources used as references:

We will now turn to our regular section -.

We now watch ASQ TV episode on –

We have taken up one article from Jim L. Smith’s Jim’s Gems:

  • Motives Are Important in Everything We Do – The success of our endeavors depends not so much on the endeavors themselves but, rather, on our motive for doing them. …. The key to success of The greatest writers, the greatest quality professionals, the greatest companies – the greatest men and women in all walks of life –is to be found in the fact they were motivated more, at least in the beginning, by what was important to them, what society needed, or by what they felt they had to do, rather than the thought of profit. This is the actual secret – the key to success… True success comes from working on things we really care about.

From the Editor’ (of Quality Magazine) – by Darryl Sealand, we have –

  • Knowledge is Power – From Sun Tzu to Chuck McGill – Why do we remember the past, and not the future? It is a perplexing question with no tangible, concrete answer. The question stems from, or at least often follows, Albert Einstein’s famous utterance, “Time is an illusion, although a stubbornly persistent one.”  …. We can even go as far as to replace the notion of memory with that of knowledge. Knowledge, after all, is facts, information, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education, i.e. the memories of that experience and education. So now the question becomes, “What if we had knowledge of the future?” … No matter your answer, the question points to the accuracy of an old, but particularly apt adage—Knowledge is power! ….As Sun Tzu states in the Art of War: “If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles.” … In the real world and on the “battlefields” of good business, particularly regarding the field of quality, knowledge lies in training. As contributing editor Genevieve Diesing writes, “As the pandemic and advances in technology impact the field, education and training remain paramount — especially for newcomers.”

I look forward to your views / comments / inputs to further enrich the theme of The Defining Trends of Quality Management – An Analytical Survey.

Note: The images or video clips depicted here above are through courtesy of respective websites who have the copyrights for the respective images /videos.

[1] Management of an Effective CAPA

The Micro View of Songs of 1943 – The Duets – Female – Female Duets(+) and Triads(+)

Female – Female Duets(+)

Unidentified singers – Tu Ek Suahan Sapana Kismatwala Jis ko Dekhe – Mazaq – Abdul Gulrez – Zahoor Raja

Parul Ghosh, Mumtaz – Bhala Kyun O Bhala Kyun Magar Kyun Kahegi Aisi Baat – Najma – Anjum Pilibhiti – Rafiq Gazanavi  B A

Parul Ghosh, Sitara – Fasle Bahar Gaae Ja Dil Mein Gam Rulae Ja– Najma – Anjum Pilibhiti – Rafiq Gazanavi  B A

Amirbai Karanataki, Mumtaz – Sajan Ke Nain Jadu Baan, Haye Main Vaari Jaaun– Najma – Anjum Pilibhiti – Rafiq Gazanavi  B A

Noor Jehan, Rajkumari – Jhoom… Aye Dil Gul-e-Naubahar Jhoom – Nauker – ? – Rafiq Gazanavi

Rajkumari, Unidentified singer – Panghat Ko Chali Panihari Re – Panghat – Pt. Indra – S N Tripathi

Rajkumari, Unidentified singer –Amma Mori Ho, Mohe Kisan Kunavr Var Deejo – Panghat – Pt. Indra – S N Tripathi

Baby Tara, Rajkumari Shukla – Chachi Ji Mori Chuha Kothe Ke  Beech – Panghat – Ramesh Gupta – S N Tripathi

Amirbai Karanataki, Veenakumari – Ham Kidhar Chale Ri Sakhi – Pratigya – Dr. Sardar ‘Aah’ – Indravadan Bhatt

Triads (+)

Zeenat Begum and Unidentified male and female singer – Main To Lahenga NahiN Pahenungi Laa De Malmal Ki Salwar – Sahara – Nazim Panipati – Pt. Govindram

Amirbai Karanataki, Pahari Sanyal, Unidentied person – Aai Re Aai Re Malin Singapur Se – ? – Ashok Ghosh

Fading Memories…. Unforgettable Songs: Volume VIII : January 2023 Edition

Jaidev: Brilliant, But Underrated, Composer:  1976 – 1977 

Jaidev – B: 3 August 1919 – D: 6 January 1987 – is one music director who had established himself as creator of melodies while basing the compositions in classical or folk styles. From start at the very top with mesmerizing magic touch, as his career went on to take deep dive of the road of loss of popular appeal, he started getting epithet of ‘too niche’ music director. By the beginning of ‘70s, he even had started getting work from only those producers or directors who were stickler to the consciousness of being faithful to the core of their film subject. By this time, these films had developed its own fan following, who was also receptive to Jaidev’s music. Emboldened by such an encouraging response, Jaidev could boldly experiment with new singers as well.

Till now,

In 2018, we listened to his songs from the most successful films phase of 1955 to 1963.

In 2019, we listened to his more remembered songs from his less remembered films for 1964 to 1970,

in 2020, we listened to highly appreciated songs from the films that did not succeed in 1971,

In 2021, we recalled the songs that have faded out because the films flopped in 1972-1973, and

In 2022, we listened to his melodies form relatively not so known films for the years 1974 and 1975

Presently, we will refresh our memories for the songs Jaidev composed for Laila Majnu (1976) and Aalap and Gharaonda (1977)

Laila Majnu (1976)

The love story of Laila and Majnu has always remained an evergreen subject for the Hindi films. From the first film made in 1931, every few years a new version has been made for the Hindi screens. However each version had its own distinct interpretation of the story, which gets reflected in the way the social milieus had been presented in terms of dress, living styles, language and delivery of dialogues etc. One dimension that tended to raise the standard of the film was its music.

My personal association with the present 1976 version goes back to the year 1977, when I was visiting Indore for some official work, along with couple of my colleagues. Once, when we were roaming through the roads of Indore after our dinner, we saw a cinema hall that had a poster of Laila Majnu (1976) as the current movie. We were just in time for the last show. However, we were in dilemma as to whether the film would be worth spending two and half hours. Except for the songs of Ghulam Mohammad’s compositions for the 1956 version, I had no idea how good the other versions were. But, as we saw the names of Madan Mohan and Jaidev as music directors, our initial misgivings thinned out and we bough the tickets.

It was much later that I could know that Madan Mohan had passed away when three or so songs and background score for the film were still incomplete. So, Jaidev was roped in to seamlessly fill the void., even though Sahir Ludhianvi – Jaidev and Sahir had parted ways after some very strong differences while working together for Mujhe Jeene Do (1964) – was the lyricist for the film.

Jaidev has composed four songs, of which the two Lata- Rafi duets – Kahena Ek Diwana Teri Yaad Mein Aahein Bharata Hai and Likh Kar Tera Naam JamiN Par Sajade Karata Hai – seemed to have gained popularity even as soon as the film would have been released, as can be gauged by the response of the viewers during the show.

We will take a closer look at two other songs –

Kaja Jhalim Sahi Ye Jhulm Woh Bhi Kar Nahi Sakati
Jahaan Mein Qais Jinda Hai Tab Tak Laila Mar Nahi Sakati

Ye Dawa Duniya Bhar Se Manavane Ki Khatir Aa
Ye Diwane Ki Jid Hai. ….. – Mohammad Rafi

I liked the song just when I heard it first time on that night, since it had all that one would expect from Jaidev- Mohammad Rafi songs of Jaidev’s early years of career. However, little did I know that we did not have many more years left for Mohammad Rafi to come up with so soulful rendering once again….

Laila Majnu Do Jaan The – Rajkumar Rizvi, Dilraj Kaur, Anuradha Paudwal

Jaidev has readily switched over to experiment with the current generation singers for the credit titles song

Aalap (1977)

Hrishikesh Mukherjee has depicted Amitabh Bachchan, once again as a deceptively calm volcano which is ready to erupt into sizzling hot lava, in this essentially a Bengali background story. When action movies was the order of the day, casting Amitabh Bachchan and Rekha in a serious social drama was certainly a bold experiment. Hrishikesh Mukherjee’s few preceding and succeeding movies had either S D Burman or R D Burman as music directors, However, he has opted for Jaidev for this film.

The credit titles song for the film, Maata Sarasvati Sharda (Yesudas, Lata Mangeshkar Dilraj Kaur, Madhurani and chorus) went on become a prayer at many schools.  Moreover, when Kishore Kumar was already established as Amitabh’s playback voice, Jaidev has boldly, and quite successfully at that, Yesudas for Koi Gaata Main So Jaata (Lyrics: Harivanshray Bachchan).  Other songs of the film, penned by Dr. Rahi Masoom Raja, also are based on classical styles while simultaneously experimenting with normally not heard voices for film songs.

Chand Akela Jaye Re Sakhi …. – Yesudas

The mood of the song presents Amitabh’s character as a poet deeply depicting his imaginative feelings of a poet lost in the thoughts of a lover lost in the thoughts of his love.  Hrishikesh Mukherjee has equally skillfully used the interludes to showcase the inherent angry young man nature of the character by way of emotionally charges light=toned dialogues.

Kahe Manva Nache Hamraa, Sakhi Ri Koi Ise Ab Sanajaye ….. – Lata Mangeshkar

Director has skillfully used the protagonists’ play with a beam of light to express the feelings of her heart when she keeps getting lost in the first ever feelings of her recent love.

Nayi Ri Lagan Aur Meethi BatiyaN, Piya Jaane Aur Mera Jiya – Madhurani (Giazabad), Kumari) Faiyyaz, Yesudas

Apparently, a practice session is also a vicarious medium of expressing mutual feelings between the two young ones. Jaidev has creatively experimented in use of a wel-known gazal exponent Madhurani (Faizabadi), well-known singer of Marathi Dramatics songs genre. (Kumari) Faiyyaz and Yesudas.

Aai Ritu Sawan Ki Piya Mora Jaaye Re – Kumari Faiyyaz, Bhupinder

The lyricist’ choice of pathos of the lovers being away from each other while the onset of season of monsoon showers is captured by the music director in the form of deployment of baritone Bhupinder voice.

Ho Rama Dar Lage Apni Umariya Se – Asrani

Binati Sun Le Tanik Natkhat Gori Binati Sun Le – Asrani

Music director has so creatively deployed Asrani himself to sing these parodies of traditional semi-classical songs. Kudos to the experimentally creative streak of the director as well music director!

Gharaonda (1977)

For someone known for his work in the field of animation films, Bhimsen’s directorial venture into Hindi cinema, Gharaonda, was a novel experiment of presenting an art film in the commercial mode on a subject of the lives of two young middle class youth lovers.

In order to appreciate boldness of the experiment, a brief look at Bhimsen’s core area of competence would not be out of order.

Because of his extensive work in  the field of animation films, Bhimsen has been recognized as the Father of animation film movement in India. He has to his credit a prolific work on trend-setting work in the field of animation films on the subjects of different subjects relating to the social issues. Recipient of numerous awards for his pioneering work, his animation short film for Films Division, Ek, Anek aur Ekta or his longest till now of its kind, 26-episode, TV serial Vartman (1994) are just two illustrations of his exemplary work.

The Filmfare awards for The Best Supporting Actor (Dr. Shriram Lagoo) and Best Lyricist (Gulzar for the song Ek Akela Is Sahar Mein) are two ample manifestations of success and acclaim that Gharaonda got.

The two songs – Do Diwane Shahar Mein (Bhupinder, Runa Laila) and Ek Akela Is Shahar Mein (Bhupinder) – were instant hits and continue to do so even now.

For all practical purposes, the sole credit of class and mass audience of India was introduced to the range of timbre of internationally known Bangladeshi ghazal singer Runa Laila on the strength of the afore-mentioned duet and a twin mood solo song presented her below –

Tumhein Ho Na Ho Mujhko To Itana Yakeen Hai Mujhe Tumse Pyar NahiN NahiN – Runa Laila – Lyrics: Naqsh Lyallpuri

The playfully mischievous tone of the song gives a magical touch to the voice of Runa Laila.

The sad version of the song (beginning from 5.04 of the audio clips of both versions together) presents the depth of Runa Laila’s voice, thereby presenting a wide range of tonal variations and range she so naturally possessed.

As we end the present episode, our curiosity is further aroused to know how many more hues of Jaidev’s creativity still can be expected to unfold in twilight years of his illustrious and courageous career.

We will continue remembering Unforgettable Songs that seem to Fading away from our Memories every second Sunday of the month ……..

Disclaimer: All images are sourced from net and video clips from You Tube. All copyrights of the respective image remain with the original owner of the image/ video.

1966 to 1971 – Those Anecdotal Five Years …. – The Practical(s) : Civil Engineering – Practical rigours practically upturned into joyous occasions (!) – [1]

If the practicals of Electrical Engineering were an enigma to me, the practicals of Civil Engineering turned out to be acid test for my inherent sense of practical applications. I do not remember much of what we had done in the Civil Labs, but two outdoor field projects – the chain link survey and the theodolite survey. Of course, I should confess that I remember them for wrong reasons.

Chain Link survey that did not link in the end

I understand that one of the popular sites for the chain link survey field projects was Swastik Society, a upper-middle class residential society opposite H L College Commerce, in the Navrangpura area of Ahmedabad.

On the appointed day our batch duly assembled at the location. However, I am almost not able to recollect how we transported the hardware or actually conducted the survey, what seems to remain deeply etched into my memory are our (undeservingly) joyous holiday mood, the ire of the residents of the area and the goof up in the practical.

From the day the schedule for this field practical was announced, we had started looking forward to this major outdoor experience – not with the curiosity of putting our sense of practical application to the real field test, but with joy of one-day picnic. As a result, from the moment we landed at the field site, we were too raucously loud and noisy for any decent residential area. When I try to look back now, I can certainly visualize how loud that noise would be in the serene afternoon silence of an upper middle-class society. I do not remember whether we indeed chided up for this uncivilized crowd behaviour by our staff, and if we were we paid any heed to it or not. But I still very clearly recall the severe, but too decent for a rowdy crowd like ours to appreciate, chidings of some of the ladies of the society,  As I look back, I wonder how were we not banned entry forever for these field projects in the society!

Well, we did manage to run through the actual measurements on the field. However, when the results were plotted down on a scale drawing, we were aghast to know that the start point and the end points were so much off the mark that our end point would actually land up a couple of kilometres from the real end. However, it seemed that almost every batch would goof here, with some degree of difference. So, our teachers readily offered us some ‘practical tips’ to bring the semblance to the measurements vis-a-vis the reality.

Our friend Dilip Vyas, has captured the mood of such chain link survey practical so well:

Being admitted to Mech. Side, I had Civil for only one year. Part of almost introductory Civil Eng. was chain and compass survey which was I think done sometime in July/August period. Since group of students and supervisor cannot just go anywhere to do it, it was done around LD in nearby Government societies. As it happened, we had to do chain survey in H Colony which was just in our back yard. On the appointed Survey day, there was no regular college. The practical was to commence in the early morning. Being Mechanical students, we tended to take anything to do with civil lightly. Almost bordering on condescending negligence. With the benefit of whatever wisdom has come with age, now I realize how stupid that was. But when you are eighteen and have just entered the rarefied word of your first choice of college location and engineering branch (AM was usually first choice and usually comprised of highest marks getters along with AE. AM meant Ahmedabad Mechanical and was among nine choices offered. Three college locations – Ahmedabad, Morvi and Suart – and three Engineering branches were the order at that time), I guess you do tend to be somewhat fool of yourself !

So anyway, we finished the survey before two o’clock in the afternoon and decided to take advantage of free half day by going to newly opened Rupali theatre which had the added attraction of 70 mm. screen. It was showing My Fair lady. I now know that the film is considered a classic but, on that day, combination of having spent most of the day out in hot Sun, having missed lunch and watching the film had given me a severe headache. Later, to compound the misery, when we had to plot our survey in Civil Engineering drawing, final two points came out about two centimetres apart because of sloppy work we had done in the field. Luckily teacher in charge at that time was understanding (and as it turned out, was soon headed to US on Immigration Visa) and gave us a pass to adjust the error and project turned out to be Ok.  The drawing part of this, and other drawing projects later, are stories in themselves.

Now, I understand, that they do not need chain to measure the distance. I have seen surveyors doing similar work using laser like device which gives you a very accurate distance between two points.

Before I draw any conclusion, it would be in good order to recount the experiences of another field practical – the theodolite survey.

Mohammad Rafi’s Non-film Hindi Geets and Ghazals – Mere GeetoN Ka Singar Ho Tum

A [belated] tribute to Mohammad Rafi on his 98th Birthday

This is second, and extended, part of the original article Mohammad Rafi’s Non-film Hindi Geets and Ghazals published on SoY

Mohammad Rafi’s (b. December 24, 1924 – d.  July 31, 1980) NFS had charmed me right from my early radio listening days. When I had reached stage of purchasing my own records, every time I would visit Rhythm House (@Kala Ghoda, Mumbai) I would invariably make sure that I skim through at least couple of Mohammad Rafi’s NFS song records, even as my limited budgets in those days forced me to prioritize the purchases from among different genres of records, thereby limiting my collection to a few Mohammad Rafi NFS songs records.

Now the present internet age has opened up the flood gates of availability of the music online. Thanks to more committed Hindi film songs fans on YT, one can find many songs that one would not have got chance to listen to in the radio-listening days.

From that vast treasure, here are some more of Mohammad Rafi’s NFSes that I have liked :

Zikr Us Pariwash Ka Aur Phir BayaaN Apna, Ban Gaya Woh Raqib Aakhir Tha Jo RaazadaaN Apana – Lyrics: Mirza Ghalib – Music: Khayyam

Khayyam and Mohammad Rafi team up to create a perfect rendering of the ghazal, drawing the listener into the depth of the mood that Ghalib would have imagined when he would have conceived this ghazal, even if the chaste Urdu lyrics remains incomprehensible to the average listener. In fact, more ear-friendly composition of the difficult Urdu / Persian poetry went on to become the norm in the later years.

I am not able to resist temptation to add one more of Khayyam – Madhukar Rajasthani compositions –

Mere GeetoN Ka Singaar Ho Tum, Jeevan Ka Pehla Pyar Ho Tum – Lyrics: Madhukar Rajasthani – Music: Khayyam

The poem is about the heart-felt exposition of the first (ever) love in one’s life, which has injected a new-found passion in the poetic expressions of the protagonist. Khayyam has set the tune to reflect the exuberance of that mood, which Rafi incarnates so lively.

Haaye Mehamaan Kahan Yeh Gham-e-Jana Hoga, Khaana-e- Dil To Koi Roz Mein Viraan Hoga – Lyrics: Daagh Dehlvi – Music: Taj Ahmed Khan

This one is a typical Taj Ahmed Khan composition – soft, sweet, with minimum orchestration. Mohammad Rafi is in his natural flow, with clear diction and throw that fully expresses the feelings embedded in the lyrics.

We will take one more instance of Taj Ahmed Khan composition – a Ghalib ghazal.

Diyaa Yeh Dil Agar Usko Bashar Hai Kyaa Kahiye, Hua Raqeeb To Ho Naamabar Hai Kyaa Kahiye – Lyrics: Mirza Ghalib – Music: Taj Ahmed Khan

The composition is relatively in higher octave scale, more in tune with the tone of the lyrics which is in the form of a complaint after once having fallen in love.

The internet is replete with Taj Ahmed Khan’s NFSes – with different singers – to offer separate subject of study and listening pleasure. However, it is time for us to change the tracks.

Keh ke Bhi Na Aaye Mulaaqaat Ko, Chaand Taare HaNse Khoob Kal Raat Ko – Lyrics: Laxman Shahabadi – Music: Shyam Sharma

Mohammad Rafi begins the opening lyrics of mukhada with extra soft touch before settling into the mood the composition.

Ji Na Sakegi Preet Kunwari Meri Saari Raat … Andekhe Dukh Ki Chhaya Mein Gheri Saari Raat – Lyrics: Madhukar Rajashthani – Sunil Kumar

The special accent lent to Ji Na Sakegi… at the very opening of the mukhada rightly raises our inquisitiveness to a higher scale. Of course, the way song proceeds, our heightened appetite is more than satisfied at every stage.

Shaam Ke Dipak Jale Man Ka Diya Bujhne Laga, Chandani To Aa Gayi… Madhuban Mera Jalane Laga – Lyrics: Madhukar Rajasthani – Music: Vinod Chatterji

Pick up any Mohammad Rafi NFS and you will feel a certain minimum level of musical output, irrespective of the lyricist or the music director.

Here is a pensively pathos mood song, composed by almost not known music director. Does it really matter?

Jab Tere Pyar Ka Afasana Likha Hai Maine, Har Jagah Apne Ko Diwana Likha Hai Maine – Lyrics: Ashish Kanwal – Music: Maqbool / Iqbal Hussain

Mohammad Rafi deftly handles quite a difficult composition….

I have a habit of always doing some work when I listen to songs. However, whenever I get to listen to this song, by the time song enters the first stanza, I get so engrossed into the mood of the song that I leave everything that I may be doing!

https://youtu.be/6fEVJDrbc9o

Kisi Ki Yaad Mein Payi Hai Jab Kami Hamne…. To AnsooN Se Jala Di Hai Zindagi Humne – Lyrics: Naqh Lyallpuri – Music: Maqbool / Iqbal Hussain

Naqsh Lyallpuri’s songs normally have difficult lyrics to set to a composition. Here the music director has weaved these lyrics in fully pleasing composition, rendered so smoothly by Mohammad Rafi. As a result, the song remains so easy on ears. Mohammad Rafi’s very unique tone in the song is another feather in the cap of this song.

Main Deep Jalaye Baitha HuN, Dam Tod Gayi Lau TaaroN Ki, Main Nain Bichhaye Baitha HuN – Lyrics: Naqsh Lyallpuri – Music: Rajeshwar Pal

Mohammad Rafi renders the song of eager expectation of visit of the beloved one even when all other mundane signs like star lights seem to have given the hope. The intensity of that feeling is accentuated by the least possible intervention of the instrumental music intervention or support.

The journey of listening to Mohammad Rafi NFs songs continues….

Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music – Volume X – December 2022 Edition

Welcome to December 2022 edition of Xth Volume of Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music.

Presently we move on to our section on tributes and celebrations for the month –

Afsana Likh Rahi Hoon – Remembering Umadevi – Born in 1926, little Uma would act in Ramleela (perhaps religious plays were permitted) and listen to the radio. She was fascinated by Hindi film songs and tried remembering the names of the singers and music directors. She was selected by Ustad Allah Rakha for a film, called Wamiq Azra. The film was released in 1946. Umadevi was finally a playback singer. Here is her very sweet NFS – Naina Ban Gaye Sawan Bhado – Madhukar Rajasthani– K Murari Sharma

Sharmila Tagore, the original oomph girl who challenged India’s conservative bent: ‘When I showed 2-piece bikini to the photographer…’Sampada Sharma – Hindi cinema has seen some graceful, effortless actors in Meena Kumari, Nargis, Waheeda Rehman but it can be safely said the versatility of Sharmila Tagore remains unmatched to this day. Tagore had the rare ability to play any role with complete ease but there was one thing that remained consistent across all her roles, and that was her graceful attitude.

The Assumed ‘Curse’ Of 30: How Gendered Ageism Impacts The Careers Of Indian WomenGulbahaar Kaur – Most individuals around the country questioned the future of an actress barely past a quarter of her life. Many young actresses of the 80’s and 90’s diminished from the big screen almost overnight due to the ‘curse’ of ageing. Beyond films this phenomenon remained consistent in other fields as well. Nevertheless, the situation seems to be changing gradually….

Continuing the series, the year-wise review of Lata Mangeshkar’s career, on Lata Mangeshkar, Mehfil Mein Teri revisits favourites from the year 1955 in 1955 – Lata Mangeshkar

Shatrughan Sinha was the first ‘angry young man’ but Amitabh Bachchan walked away with that titleSampada Sharma –  On Shatrughan Sinha’s birthday(9th December), here’s looking back at his professional rivalry with Amitabh Bachchan.

25 years of Chachi 420: Kamal Haasan film is a lesson on how not to mock a man playing a woman, and still be funnyArushi Jain – One of the most endearing things about the film where Haasan plays a middle-aged woman is that the character is never reduced to a caricature. The laughs never comes from misogyny or a perverted gaze. Chachi 420 works as a story, not as a gimmick.

November 2022 episode of Fading Memories, Unforgettable Songs takes up Mohammad Rafi’s First Duet Song With The Music Director: 2nd Five-Year Period: Year 1949 – Part II. Our journey began with the 1st Five-Year Period of 1944 to 1948 in the year 2021. We then commenced the 2nd Five-Year Period of 1949-1953 with Part I of the year 1949 in July 2022.

Shailendra Sharma @ Golden Era of Bollywood has not posted the memorial tribute posts for the month till the writing for the present post.

We now move on to posts on other subjects –

Bollywood’s Saffron-clad Sadhus Are Scheming Criminals Who Deserve Violent EndsJayasri Viswanathan – In Bollywood, Sadhu is not an ascetic who has renounced worldly attachments to attain moksha by practices guided by his guru. Onscreen, he is a scheming, lusty, political mastermind in cahoots with the tilak-dhaari antagonist.

When Kundan Shah told Saeed Mirza: ‘I hope I am not doomed to keep doing funny stuff’ – Saeed Mirza’s illustrated memoir – I Know the Psychology of Rats, Tulika Books – recounts his personal and professional bond with the ‘Jaane Bhi Do Yaaro’ director.

Tempus Fugit Songs integral to the plot, that help the plot to thicken. Some songs show time passing and the attendant changes that occur with time.  The present list has songs wherein the time passes and there are attendant changes/developments that are shown.

Thinker’s Songs – thinking is so integral to mankind there are many songs that talk about thinking. Our film songs do not need to delve into philosophy or poetry, they are about problems at hand relating to love, heartbreak etc.

One Lady Sings, The Other Dances – On a few occasions, one of the characters sings while the other dances to its tune. Many songs have a male character singing and a female character dances.

Consecutive Melodies are exceptions where one song is immediately followed by another.

From Bollywood Rewind – Sampada Sharma – Indian Express’s weekly column:

We have moved forward with Micro View of Male-Female Duets for 1943, to Part 2, Part 3, Part 4 and Part 5. SoY has concluded the series with Best songs of 1943: Wrap Up 4, whereat Khemchand Prakash is adjudged the Best Music Director of 1943 for Tansen

In continuation to our tradition of ending the post with a few songs of Mohammad Rafi that are relevant to the topics covered in the present episode, we had instituted a series wherein we listened to Mohammad Rafi and Lata Mangeshkar’s duet with a music director for the first time in a Hindi film, every month for the year 2022.

We pay tribute to Dilip Kumar and Mohammad Rafi with some romantic- happy mood songs:

Preet Jata Ke Meet Bana Ke Bule Na Jana – Hulchal (1951) – with Lata Mangeshkar -Khumar Barabanqvi – Sajjad Hussain

Aashiq Hai Agar Hai Pyare – Insaniyat (1955) – Rajinder Krishna – C Ramchandra

Ishq Diwana Husn Bhi Ghayal Dono Taraf Ek Dard-e-Jigar Hai – Sungursh (1968) – Shakeel Badayuni – Naushad

Peete Peete Kabhi Kabahi Yun Jam Badalate Jaate HaiN – Bairag (1976) – Anand Bakshi – Kalyanji Anandji

I look forward to your inputs to enrich the contents of Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music.

Disclaimer: This monthly series of posts is my best-effort-based compilation of posts on Hindi film songs that I normally visit regularly. As I record my sincere thanks to all the original creators of these posts, any other posts that I have nor covered herein shows my lack of awareness of existence of such posts and is by no means any disrespect to their work. The copyrights to the posts, images and video clips remain the properties of the original creators.

Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music wishes its readers a lyrically composed 2023 with happiness, health and progress in great harmony.

The episodes of January 2022 to December 2022 have been compiled as one file @ Carnival of Blogs on Golden Era of Hindi Film Music, Volume X – 2022 and can be read / downloaded by clicking on the hyperlink

The Micro View of Songs of 1943 – The Duets – Male-Female Duets [5]

Ghulam Haider and Shamshad Begum – Kya Mast Hawaien Hai, Daali Daali Najhuk Si Adayein Hai Poonji -? – Ghulam Haider

HFGK does not mention male singer, but uploader Sadanand Kamath identifies him Ghulam Haider

Mulchand, Rahamatbai – Gajarewali Najariya Miale Ja – Prarthana – Dr. Safdar ‘Aah’ – Saraswati Devi

Rafique Ghazanvi, Menka, Chorus – Tailap Ki Nagri Meing Gaan NahiN Bajana NahiN – Pt. Sudarshan – Rafique Ghazanvi

https://youtu.be/GsSuXKqwrZM

Rafique Ghazanvi, Menka, Chorus –Panchhi Ud Chala Apne Desh, …. – Pt. Sudarshan – Rafique Ghazanvi

Kishore Sahu, Pratima Dasgupta – Niraali Duniya Hamari – Raja – Rammurti – Khan Mastana

Kishore Sahu, Pratima Dasgupta – Naach Naach Kar Thumak Thumak Kar Dekh – Raja -Rammurti – Khan Mastana

Noor Mohammad Charlie, Suraiya – Ek Dilwala Ek Dilwali – Sanjog- D N Madhok – Naushad Ali

Noor Mohammad Charlie, Suraiya – Udate Panchhi Kaun Unako Bataye – Sanjog- D N Madhok – Naushad Ali

Ishwarlal, Kaushalya – Dekha Hai Ek Sapana Suhana – Zaban – D N Madhok – C Ramchandra

Ishwarlal, Kaushalya – Chal Re Chal Ab Aur KahiN Kho Jaayein – Zaban – D N Madhok – C Ramchandra